Category Life in society

Kenny 6 How does Kenny react to the dirt in the city? a He really hates it. b He doesn’t mind it. c He wants to move back to the country. 7 What two places does Kenny like most? a the suburbs and the country b the country and the city c the city and the suburbs 8 When does Kenny dislike the city? a on rainy days b on sunny days c on snowy days 9 What kind of city would Kenny like best? a a city by the sea b a city close to a rural area c a city with beautiful buildings LISTENING FOR DETAILS

1 Read the following questions before you listen to the interview. Make sure you understand the vocabulary. If necessary, use a dictionary to check words that you do not understand.

1 Where did Kenny grow up? a in a small tow’n

b in Europe c in a city

2 What feeling does being in the country give Kenny?

a isolation b freedom c boredom

3 What made Kenny move back to New York from a small town?

a his kids b his job c his wife

4 What bothers Kennv most about the urban lifestyle?

a the noise b the people c the traffic

5 Which w’ord best describes Kenny’s feelings about his mother getting

a parking ticket? a anger b fear c stress

Now listen to the interview with Kenny. As you listen, circle the correct answer to the questions above. Then compare your answers with a partner.

► PLAY

AFTER THE INTERVIEWS

DRAWING INFERENCES

1 Work with a partner. Read the list of activities below. Then, based on what you inferred from the interviews, decide whether you think that Barbara and Kenny would enjoy them. You may decide that only Barbara would like the activity, only Kenny would like it, or that they both would like it. Check (✓) the appropriate boxes.

Barbara

Kenny

1 Having a picnic by a lake

2 Going to the theater

3 Going to a concert in a small, neighborhood park

4 Going camping or hiking in the mountains

5 Going out to a restaurant with friends

Activity Would Probably Like It

2 Share your answers with the class. Be prepared to support your opinions.

SHARING YOUR OPINION

Look at this cartoon.

Discuss the following

questions as a class.

1 What do you think the speaker means by "a larger community”?

2 Do you think the cartoonist believes that people who live in cities feel like part of a larger community?

Why or why not?

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Crime and Criminals

laboratory

D getting started

In this section you are going to discuss deviance, crime, and types of crime. You will also listen to some news reports about different types of crime.

READING AND THINKING ABOUT THE TOPIC

1 Read the following passage.

In all societies, some behaviors conform to what is expected while other behaviors are thought of as deviant – that is, they are viewed as unacceptable. Some deviant behavior is illegal. A crime is a deviant act that is prohibited by the law.

The U. S. legal system recognizes two main categories of crime. Felonies are serious crimes; misdemeanors are less serious. Crime can be violent or nonviolent. White-collar crime refers to illegal business transactions. Blue-collar crime refers to small crimes such as shoplifting and also to serious crimes such as robbery and murder. There are also

"modem” crimes that have been made possible by technology, such as crimes connected with the Internet.

It is difficult to know how many crimes are committed because most crimes are not reported, and most criminals are not caught.

Answer the following questions according to the information in the passage.

1 What is deviant behavior? Is deviant behavior always a crime?

2 What are two categories of crime?

3 What makes it difficuh to know how many crimes are committed?

З і Read these questions and share your answers with a partner.

1 What different types of crime do you know about?

2 How is crime punished in your community?

SHARING YOUR OPINION

1 Work in a small group. Look at the photograph and discuss whether you think the photograph shows deviant behavior. Explain the reasons for your answers.

2

Read the list of deviant behaviors below. Number them in order of how wrong or unacceptable they are: 1 = most unacceptable;

10 = most acceptable.

Getting into the bus or subway without paying a fare

Paying for one movie ticket in a multiplex theater, and then going into a second movie without paying

Taking paper or office supplies from your school or workplace

Receiving too much change from a cashier for a purchase and not returning it Buying counterfeit goods, such as a homemade CD

Making a copy of a CD and giving it to your friends

Damaging someone’s parked car and not leaving your contact information

Buying something that you know was stolen Keeping an item that was delivered to you by mistake

Asking your doctor to help you get treatment that your insurance doesn’t normally pay for

Discuss with your group whether you would consider any of the behaviors in step 2 to be ciimes.

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NOTE TAKING: USING YOUR NOTES TO ASK QUESTIONS AND MAKE COMMENTS

Many professors in English-speaking countries expect you to ask questions and make comments during or after their lectures. In this way, information can be clarified and a variety of opinions can be introduced that increase the depth of the discussion and make it more interesting.

In Chapter 7, you practiced writing questions in the margins to remind you to clarify information that you did not understand. You can also use the margins to write comments that you would like to make. Here are some reasons you might want to ask a question or make a comment:

• You did not understand something the speaker said and want clarification.

• You would like additional information about some point of the lecture.

• You want to contribute additional information about a point of the lecture.

• You disagree with something the speaker said and want to discuss it.

• You agree with something the speaker said and want to express your support.

Even if you do not have a question or comment, it is a good idea to take notes on questions and comments of other students. You should also take notes on the lecturer’s response and any class discussion that follows. This will increase your knowledge and understanding of the topic.

1

► PLAY

Listen to Part One of the lecture and take notes on your own paper.

Write your questions and comments in the margins of the paper on which you take notes. Write at least one question and one comment.

3 ! Discuss your questions and comments with a partner.

LECTURE, PART TWO: Questions, answers, and comments

GUESSING VOCABULARY FROM CONTEXT

1 The following items contain important vocabulary from Part Two of the lecture. Work with a partner. Using the context and your knowledge of related words, take turns trying to guess the meanings of the words in bold.

1 People’s moods and opinions are difficult to understand through statistics.

2 This figure might reflect people’s concern about violent crime.

3 If you’ve suffered the loss of a loved one, your immediate response is to want revenge.

___ 4 This form of retribution is not the answer.

___ 5 The legal system is supposed to elevate us: it is set up so that it is better

than us.

6 Individually, we are flawed, but as a society we are strong.

7 In many ways, capital punishment is very arbitrary.

8 If you really believed in the death penalty as a punishment for a horrific crime. . .

9 Nobody would stand for that.

2

Work with your partner. Match the vocabulary terms with their definitions by writing the letter of each definition below in the blank next to the sentence containing the correct term in step 1. Check your answers in a dictionary if necessary, a punishment for the person who hurt you b terrible c number d not perfect e unfair f punishment g help us become better h accept, allow і feelings

Q NOTE TAKING: USING YOUR NOTES TO ASK QUESTIONS AND MAKE COMMENTS

► PLAY

Listen to Part Two of the lecture. You will hear five students address Mr. Stack. Take notes on their questions and comments and on Mr. Stack’s responses.

2

Compare your notes with your partner from Part One of the lecture. Were the questions and comments the students addressed to Mr. Stack similar to or different from yours?

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1. Central Business District 6. Heavy Manufacturing 2. Wholesale Light Manufacturing 7. Outlying Business District 3. Low-Class Residential 8. Residential Suburb 4. Medium-Class Residential 9. Industrial Suburb 5. High-Class Residential 10. Commuter’s Zone Source: Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 1945 . NOTE TAKING: USING HANDOUTS TO HELP YOU TAKE NOTES

A lecturer’s handouts will help you understand the lecture and give you material that you can study later. However, lecturers rarely give you exactly the same information in the lecture as they do in handouts. Therefore, you must still listen carefully to understand what the speaker says.

Here are some ways that you can take notes on handouts as you listen to a lecture:

• highlight or circle parts of the handout that the lecturer discusses

• mark information that you do not understand and want to ask questions about

• write comments

Remember to take notes in your usual way in addition to marking the handouts. Be sure to organize all vour notes in a clear fonnat (e. g., columns, an outline, or a map) after the lecture.

► PLAY

Listen to two excefpts front the lecture, one from Part One and one from Part Two. Circle the parts of the handouts that the lecturer refers to. Take notes on your own paper about what he savs.

2 і Compare your notes with a partner.

LECTURE, PART ONE: Reasons People Move to Cities

GUESSING VOCABULARY FROM CONTEXT

1 The following items contain some important vocabulary from Part One of the

lecture. Work with a partner. Using the context and your knowledge of related words, take turns trying to guess the meanings of the words in bold.

1 we are going to discuss the mass urbanization of the world’s population.

2 . . . which is an unprecedented trend worldwide.

3 The town has “social opportunity" but “isolation.”

4 Until the twentieth century, the major source of employment was farming.

5 Jobs are being created in manufacturing.

6 Jobs are being created in financing.

7 There are transportation networks.

2

Work with your partner. Match the vocabulary terms with their definitions by writing the letter of each definition below in the blank next to the sentence or phrase containing the correct term in step 1. Check your answers in a dictionary’ if necessary;

a raising animals or growing fruits and vegetables to sell b making products in factories c movement to the cities d something that has never happened before

e systems of r oads, buses, and trains that cross and connect with each other f separation from other people; loneliness g management of money

О NOTE TAKING: COMBINING THE SKILLS

In this book, you have learned many skills that can help you to take clear notes on lectures.

As you listen to a lecture, you have learned how to:

• identify’ main ideas and supporting details

• identify numerical information

• identify organizational phrases and signal words

• pay attention to the lecturer’s stress and intonation

As you take notes, you have learned how to:

• use symbols and abbreviations

• use telegraphic language

• record numerical information accurately

• use handouts

• organize your notes in an appropriate format, e. g., columns, map, outline

• write questions and comments about what yoir have heard

After you listen to a lecture, you have learned how to:

• clarify anything you have not understood

• revise and organize your notes clearly, if necessary

As you continue to practice, you will find that you can easily combine all these note-taking skills whenever you take notes.

► PLAY

Listen to Part One of the lecture and take notes. Practice combining the skills that vou have learned.

2

3

Revise your notes and organize them more clearly if necessary. How satisfied are you with your note-taking progress? Are there any areas that you need to review?

Compare your notes with a partner and share your questions and comments.

LECTURE, PART TWO: Changes in the City

GUESSING VOCABULARY FROM CONTEXT

1 The following items contain some important vocabulary from Part One of the

lecture. Work with a partner. Using the context and your knowledge of related words, take turns trying to guess the meanings of the words in bold.

____ 1 Tokyo, Mexico, Bombay, and Sao Paulo are just a few’ examples of today’s

megacities.

2 They show the urban sprawl that is occurring in contemporary cities.

3 Our cities are breaking up into smaller communities, often by ethnic group or income level.

_ 4 Many cities do have a kind of identity or personality, but a city is not homogeneous.

5 Many cities have slum areas or ghettos where people live in destitute conditions.

__ 6 The beautiful architecture and vibrant nightlife are one face of the city.

2

Work with your partner. Match the vocabulary terms W’ith their definitions by – writing the letter of each definition below in the blank next to the correct term in step 1. Check your answers in a dictionary if necessary’.

a exciting

b uncontrolled growth of cities c all the same d very poor and hopeless e the amount of money that people make f huge cities

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AMERICAN VOICES: Evelina, Arpad, Gail, and Tom

In this section you will hear four people share their opinions about crime. First, you will hear Evelina and Arpad, the parents of a young boy, discuss their fears about crime in society. Then Gail, a professional dancer, and Tom, a graduate student, will talk about being crime victims.

BEFORE THE INTERVIEWS

EXAMINING GRAPHIC MATERIAL

1
Look at the two pie charts below that classify arrests in the United Slates today. The chart on the left classifies arrests by age group. The chart on the right classifies arrests by gender. Work with a partner. Fill in the chart legends with your guesses about the age and gender of people arrested.

2

Check your responses using the answer key at the bottom of page 102. Were your guesses correct? Does any of the information surprise you?

INTERVIEW WITH EVELINA AND ARPAD: Crime in society today

Here aie some words and phrases from the interview with Evelina and Arpad printed in bold and given in the context in which you will hear them. They are followed by definitions.

I’ve never actually been struck by crime: personally affected

I see big groups of kids roaming the streets: walking around with no clear purpose if it’s a rowdy teenage group: noisy, wild Guns might not be visible: able to be seen

I’ve never seen anyone with a gun and much less seen a shooting: even less, certainly haven’t

It’s very random: that’s what worries me: without any definite pattern A bullet struck him in the leg: small metal object fired from a gun

Kids who gel into gangs don’t have that much contact with other people: groups of young people who are involved in antisocial or illegal activities

It’s a recipe for disaster: situation that will lead to serious trouble

Arpad, Daniel, and Evelina

The government has such a slack attitude toward guns: lazy, not interested

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