Category Life in society

GUESSING VOCABULARY FROM CONTEXT

1 The following items contain important vocabulary from Part One of the lecture. Work with a partner. Using the context and your knowledge of related words, take turns trying to guess the meanings of the words in bold.

1 A misdemeanor is broadly defined as. . .

___ 2 A felony carries a term of imprisonment.

___ 3 Some of the more serious felonies include robbery. . .

4 Another way in which people may classify crime is. . .

5 White-collar crime includes tax fraud.

6 White-collar crime also includes embezzlement.

___ 7 Corporate crime is committed by people of high social status.

8 Your credit will be ruined.

2

Work with your partner. Match the vocabulary terms with their definitions by writing the letter of each definition below in the blank nexL Lo the sentence containing the correct term in step 1. Check your answers in a dictionary if necessary.

a financial reputation

b stealing money from the place where you work c loosely, generally d cheating on your taxes e important position in society f time spent in prison (jail) g using force to steal h organize, categorize

NOTE TAKING: CLARIFYING YOUR NOTES

1

► PLAY

Listen to Part One of the lecture and take notes on vour own paper. Use circles, question marks, or asterisks to signal any parts of the lecture that you do not understand.

2 I Write your questions in the margin.

3 ! Clarify your notes by finding the answers to your questions.

4 Compare your notes with a partner.

GUESSING VOCABULARY FROM CONTEXT

The following items contain important vocabulary from Part Two of the lecture. Work with a partner. Using the context and your knowledge of related words, choose the best synonym for the words in bold by circling the correct letters. Check your answers in a dictionary’ if necessary’.

1 As long as there has been crime, there have been ways to solve it. a find and catch the criminals

b prevent and record crime c prosecute and punish crime

2 One of the oldest methods is interrogation, a interview

b discussion c questioning

3 This system allows people to give information to the police anonymously, a in person

b without giving their names c using the telephone

4 In some cases, law enforcement personnel have difficulty finding a criminal, a members of ihe public

b witnesses

c members of the police

5 Each persons fingerprint is unique, a individual

b similar c recognizable

6 It was only in the late nineteenth century that fingerprints were first used to identify criminals.

a find the motive of b establish the identity of c locale the position of

7 There were some cases where nannies were accused of abusing the children they were paid to take care of.

a friends b relatives c babysitters

8 Each person, with the exception of identical siblings, has a unique DNA coding system.

a brothers and sisters b relatives c twins

One reason for taking notes is so that you can remember what you have heard well enough to answer questions on a test or quiz. Sometimes in college classes you are given the questions you will be asked before you hear a lecture. Thinking about these questions ahead of time will help you focus on the main ideas and important details as you listen to the lecture and take notes.

1 Read the following questions before you listen to the lecture. Make sure you

understand what is being asked.

1 Professor Anglin talks about interrogation as an important part of solving crimes. What is interrogation and how is it helpful?

2 A “crime hotline” is a system that the police sometimes use to find criminals. It involves asking private citizens to give information to the police by making an anonymous phone call or logging onto a website anonymously. Who is likely to use this system, and why?

3 Using fingerprints is one of the oldest ways of identifying a criminal. Why are fingerprints one of the most useful tools in crime investigations?

4 Psychological profiling is a crime-solving technique practiced by criminal psychologists. What does psychological profiling involve?

5 Hidden cameras make it possible to record all activity in the area covered by the camera. What is controversial about this form of crime detection?

6 The analysis of DMA found at the scene of a crime is a new and effective technique for solving crimes. Is it always accurate?

► PLAY

Listen to the second part of the lecture and take notes on your own paper using an organizational format of your choice. Listen carefully for the answers to the questions above.

3

Clarify your notes if necessary. Then work with a partner and take turns giving oral answers to the questions in step 1. Do not look at your notes while you are speaking.

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NOTE TAKING: USING YOUR NOTES TO ANSWER TEST QUESTIONS

1 Read the following questions about Part Two of the lecture. Think about what kind of information you will need to answer them.

1 Why must an applicant be able to participate well in an interview?

2 Which basic computer skills are expected in an office environment today?

3 How was information stored in the past? How is it stored today?

4 What are some ways to acquire or improve the skills you need?

► PLAY

Listen to Part Two of the lecture and take notes on your own paper. Use the questions in step 1 as a guide to help you listen for the important points.

3

Use your notes to answer the questions in step 1. Share your answers with a partner. You can take turns explaining your answers orally. Or, you can write your answers and then exchange what you have written. Answer as fully as you can.

AFTER THE LECTURE

SUMMARIZING WHAT YOU HAVE HEARD

Remember that only the most important points of a lecture should be included in a summary.

Write a one-paragraph summary of the lecture. Include these words in your summary:

traditional computer research skills

apply interview technology acquire

APPLYING WHAT YOU HAVE LEARNED

1

2

“Nothing important—nothing on fax, nothing on voice mail, nothing on the Internet. Just, you know, handwritten stuff."*

Look al this cartoon. Work with a partner and take turns answering the following questions.

1 Who do you think the woman is talking to?

2 Do you think the person the woman is talking to will agree with her opinion about what is important?

Look at this cartoon. Work with your partner and make up the rest of the conversation between the two men in the cartoon. Take turns acting the parts of “Bob” and "the other man.”

SHARING YOUR OPINION

Answer the questions below in a small group.

1 What do you think are the three most important qualities in an employee? Why?

2 What job skills do you think people will need by the year 2050?

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IN YOUR OWN VOICE

In this section you will conduct an experiment about television that was designed by the sociologist Bernard McGrane of Chapman University. It is called "The Un-TV Experiment.”

CONDUCTING AND PRESENTING YOUR OWN RESEARCH

1 Read about how to conduct "The Un-TV Experiment.”

The Un-TV’ Experiment

You are going to watch TV for three ten-minute periods. In each of these periods, you will watch a different TV program and do a different task. You will take notes about the tasks. You should sit very quietly and concentrate completely on what you are doing so that you do not make a mistake as you record your data. Make sure that you have everything you need: a comfortable place to sit and write, a pencil or pen, and enough paper.

The Tasks

1 Watch any TV program for ten minutes. Count how many times you see a technical manipulation (that is, a change) on the screen, including:

• a cut (the picture changes to another picture, like a slide show)

• a fade-in or fade-out (one picture slowly changes into another picture)

• a zoom (the camera moves from a wide view to a close-up view, or from a close-up view to a wide view)

• a voice-over (a voice explains or comments on what you are watching)

• another technical change (describe it)

2 Watch a news program for ten minutes.

• Count the number of positive images that you see.

• Count the number of negative images that you see.

Make notes about any images that you particularly remember.

3 Watch any TV program for ten minutes. Do not turn on the sound. As you watch, make notes about these two questions:

• How interesting is the program?

• How easy is it to distinguish between the program itself and the commercials?

Now conduct the experiment yourself. A good way to record your results is to use a chart. Your chart should be similar to the one at the top of page 90.

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Controlling Crime

In this section you are going to discuss the problem of how to control crime. Then you will listen to people express opinions about various crimes, decide how certain of their opinions the people are, and discuss whether or not you agree with them.

READING AND THINKING ABOUT THE TOPIC

1 Read the following passage.

Violent crime has dropped in the United States in recent years, but the overall crime rate is still alarmingly high. Crime control is one of the most difficult and controversial subjects in sociology. People have very different beliefs about the best way to lower the crime rate.

Many people believe that the best way to control crime is to stop it from happening in the first place. This might mean developing educational and social programs to discourage young people from becoming involved in criminal activity, or having more

police officers on the streets. Other people think that the best way to control crime is to have tougher punishments. This might include haring stricter laws, more arrests, and longer prison terms.

Answer the following questions according to the information in the passage.

1 What are two different approaches to controlling crime?

2 How could educational and social programs help lower the crime rate?

3

Read these questions and share your answers with a partner.

1 Which of the two different approaches to controlling crime do you think is more effective? Why?

2 Do you think your community has a high crime rate or a low crime rate? Explain.

О LISTENING FOR OPINIONS

When people are discussing ideas, particularly if they are complex or controversial, you often have to listen closely to understand their opinions. You can hear how strongly a person feels about a topic by listening to the speakers words and the degree of certainty with which the words are spoken. Look at the following examples:

The speaker gives an opinion. / think. . .

/ believe. . .

/ feel that. . .

In my opinion. . .

The speaker is very sure of his or her opinion.

I really think. . .

/ really believe. . .

/ am convinced that. . .

I am certain that. . .

That’s an excellent idea!

That’s terrible!

That’s aw ful!

The speaker is not really sure of his or her opinion.

Mmm. . . well. . . let me see. . .

Well. . . maybe. . .

I don’t know. . .

I guess. . .

I’m not really sure, but. . .

1 Read the technical terms and definitions for various types of crime in the left column of the chart on page 115. Read the examples of each type of crime in the right column.

Type of crime

Example

1 Assault and robbery (attacking someone and stealing their possessions)

A group of teenagers between the ages of 15 and 17 attack an old man as he walks home. They steal his wallet and beat him with a baseball bat, leaving him unconscious on the sidewalk.

2 Abduction (taking a person against his ot­her will)

A woman who is divorced from her husband secretly takes the couples 13-year-old son and runs off with him to another country. The father and mother share custody of the son.

3 Vandalism (destroying property)

Some teenagers break into a school cafeteria and smash all the plates. Then they spray paint the walls.

4 Delinquent payment (not paying money that you owe)

A couple who are renting an apartment have not paid their rent for the last three months.

5 Impersonation / Breaking and entering (pretending to be someone else and entering somewhere illegally)

A man knocks on the door of an elderly womans house, pretending to be a TV repairman. Once inside, he asks to use the bathroom, but, instead, he goes into the bedroom and steals money and jewelry.

6 False ID (having identification papers that identify you as someone else)

An 18-year-old makes a copy of his Mend’s college ID. He uses it to pretend that he is 21.

2

Listen to people express their opinions about the crimes in step 1. what they say and the degree of certainty with which they express Circle the degree of certainty that the speaker expresses.

► PLAY

Listen carefully to their opinions.

1

Sure

Not sure

2

Sure

Not sure

3

Sure

Not sure

4

Sure

Not sure

5

Sure

Not sure

6

Sure

Not sure

3

Compare your answers with a partner. Then tell your partner about any of the cases where you disagree with the people you heard.

О AMERICAN VOICES: David and Amy

In this section you will hear David, a young man who works with high school students before they go to college, talk about the importance of preventing juvenile crime. Then Amy will give a lawyers perspective on crime control.

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Global Issues

О GETTING STARTED

In this section you will leant about the worldwide trend toward living in an urban environment, or city. You will begin to think about the advantages and disadvantages of city life.

READING AND THINKING ABOUT THE TOPIC

1 Read the following passage.

Cities dominate social, economic, and cultural affairs today, but this was not always true. We lend to accept cities as facts of life, but actually they are a relatively recent phenomenon. A century ago, 86% of the world still lived in rural (country) areas, but today about 50% live in rural areas and about 50% live in urban areas (cities). By 2025, it is estimated that over 60% of the population will live in urban areas or suburbs (smaller communities just outside of a city).

City residents are offered a rich life full of excitement and opportunity. All over the world, more and more people are moving to urban environments in search of better jobs, a better education, or the possibility оГ more lifestyle choices. However, there are also many serious problems in cities, including homelessness, environmental pollution, crime, and noise.

Answer the following questions based on the information in the passage.

1 How has the population of urban areas changed during the past century?

2 Why do people move to cities?

3 What problems have developed in cities?

З I Read these questions and share your answers with a partner. 1 What features of city life appeal to you?

‘ 2 What features of city life do you dislike?

EXAMINING GRAPHIC MATERIAL

Look at the graph below and discuss the following questions with a partner.

1 What is the approximate population of the world today?

2 What can you predict about the population of the world in the year 2050?

3 In "Reading and Thinking About the Topic,” you read that more and more of the world’s population is moving to urban areas. What effect do you think that will have on urban life? What effect will it have on rural life?

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