Category Life in society

ACADEMIC LISTENING AND NOTE TAKING: Basic Work Skills Necessary in the Twenty-first Century

In this section you will hear and take notes on a two-part lecture given by Graciano E. Matos, who works in a career counseling office at a college. In his lecture, entitled Basic Work Skills Necessaiy in the Twenty-first Century, he will explain how technology has impacted office jobs.



In his lecture, Graciano E. Matos compares old and new wavs to get jobs and discusses the computer skills necessaiy for work in modern offices.

1 Read the following list of computer skills. Use the list to give a grade to yourself and an older or younger family member or friend.

A = excellent; В = good; C = average; D = very weak; F = failing

Older or Younger You Relative or Friend

Using e-mail

Learning to use new software

Understanding hardware problems

Cheating documents in Microsoft Word Doing research online

Using spreadsheets

Creating Microsoft PowerPoint presentations Making business cards and flyers

Creating and organizing databases



Whose grades were generally higher – yours or those of your relative or friend? Why?

Discuss the questions below with a partner. Then share your answers with the class.

1 How do computers currently help you in your studies or in your profession?

2 How do you think you can improve your computer skills?

3 How do you think the Internet can help you look for a job?

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AMERICAN VOICES: Eddie, Leslie, Ralph, Vanessa

Felix, and Richard

In this section you will hear six people of different ages give their opinions about the positive and negative effects of various forms of media.



1 Work with a partner and read the following positive and negative effects of the media. Discuss each effect and find an example that you and your partner agree about. Write the examples in the blanks.

Positive effects Example

Keeps the user well informed NewCpape-K tell t/C tvhah к happe-ning in #ie – world

Is entertaining

Is a good use of time

Is a good form of communication __

Allows users to share opinions _________________________________________

(Other positive effect)

Negative effects Example

Causes users to waste time

Encourages violence

Has too much advertising______________________________

Encourages people to think alike

(Other negative effect)


Now look at the forms of media below. Choose three. Explain to your partner the positive and negative effects each one has on you.

• Television • Video games • Magazines • Internet

• Telephone • Newspapers • Movies • Other?


Opinions about media

Here are some words and phrases from the interview with Eddie, Leslie, and Ralph printed in bold and given in the context in which you will hear them. They are followed by definitions.


maybe a wasteful effect: something that makes you use time badly Video games restrict the things kids do: limit

Do big kids know the difference between fantasy and reality: something in your imagination, not real

The reason is not because they’ll make you deranged: crazy, mentally disturbed Violent games. . . just make Lhe kid a little bit more antisocial: less friendly Leslie

I used to think they were just trendy: the latest fashion a status symbol thing: sign of being rich or important She is able to keep tabs on us: know where we are Ralph




You’ve got to keep an eye on the movies your children watch: pay attention to You’ve got to check out the program: become familiar with



Work with a partner. Read the descriptions of the people who were interviewed in the left column. Then listen to parts of their interviews. Write the form of media they are discussing in the right column.

Person Type of media

Eddie is 15 years old. He is interested in sports, music, and traveling.

Leslie is 24 years old. She is currently studying

to become a teacher.

Ralph is 40 years old. He is a plumber and



Now listen to the entire interview with these three people. As you listen, take notes on the positive and negative effects of the form of media each person is discussing. Write your notes in the chart on page 86.


Positive effects

Negative effects




З і Compare your notes with your partner.


Opinions about media

Here are some words and phrases from the interview with Vanessa, Felix, and Richard printed in bold and given in the context in which you will hear them. They are followed by definitions.


It’s completely drained of all real information: without, empty of

[News is influenced by] the corporate and political interests: powerful corporations and political groups

The news is totally manipulated: controlled

anything that is not prepackaged: prepared in advance


Sports give you a lot of character: good qualities

I like a good whodunit: mystery movie (from the words “Who done it?")

Parents are the nucleus of the family: center

Especially when the kids are in their formative years: young age when good or had qualities are developed Richard

You have to look at the trade-off: disadvantages 1 link up with people: communicate

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In this section you will hear and take notes on a two-part lecture by Professor Michael Anglin, a lawyer who is interested in methods that are used to find criminals. The title of the lecture is Crime and Ways of Solving Crime. Professor Anglin will review categories and types of crime, and go on to discuss some methods of solving crime.



One way to begin to become familiar with the technical vocabulary of a particular subject is to try organizing it into word groups. Surprisingly, you might find that you understand more than you think you do.

Look at the word map for organizing different kinds of crime vocabulary. Then read the list of words below the word map. Work with a partner and write the words in the appropriate word groups on the map. Use a dictionary if necessary. You can also ask other classmates or your teacher for help.

Categories of crime

accused DNA testing identity theft misdemeanor

blue-collar crime fare evasion judge



If you find that there are some parts of a lecture that you cannot understand because the lecturer is speaking quickly or the ideas and vocabulary are difficult, do not panic!

Develop a system that you can use during a lecture for noting down ideas or words that you need to check. The fastest way is to use circles, question marks, or asterisks to mark problem items. You can use this method during the lecture itself.

After the lecture, make notes of your questions in the margin. Your questions could involve minor items, such as spelling, or major items, such as comprehension of an idea or opinion.

Take the Lime to clarify any information that you do not understand. Most lecturers will encourage you to ask questions. Otherwise, you can try to clarify’ anything that you do not understand by asking your classmates, looking in your textbook, or doing research in a library or online.




Look at the student’s notes below. They are notes on the beginning of Professor Anglins lecture. The circles, question marks, and asterisks indicate things that the student has not understood. Now look at the right side of the page and notice the questions about these things that the student has written.


Listen to an excerpt from the lecture and try’ to answer the student’s questions.

З I Ask other classmates for clarification, if necessary.

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It is important to learn to pay attention to a speakers stress and intonation because they are a central part of the speaker’s message. There are several basic patterns in spoken English that you need to be familiar with.

1 A loud or emphasized word can indicate the importance of one particular idea. It can also show contrast between two ideas:

The SECRET to preparing yourself for the working world today is. . .

In the PAST, these skills were not necessary, but NOWADAYS, they are.

2 A rising tone often indicates that the speaker is asking a question.

______ -^w

Did you check your resume before you sent it?

3 A falling tone indicates that the speaker is making a statement or has completed a list.

You have to be prepared for todays workplace.

_________ fh_____________ r

You need to be able to type fast, do research online, and " ^

prepare PowerPoint presentations.

1 Work with a partner. Take turns reading the following sentences aloud. Predict how the speaker might use stress and intonation to draw attention to what he is saying.

• Circle the words you think the speaker will stress.

• Draw arrows to show rising or falling intonation.

1 Well, what are the skills that you need?

2 Then you decided where you were going to apply’, put your resume with a cover letter in a stamped envelope, and waited anxiously for someone to get back to you.

3 In fact, technology has not so much changed the process as enhanced it.

4 You can research employment not just in your city, but also in your state, your region, your country, and even other countries.

5 hr addition to using newspapers and the phone, the Internet has become the tool of preference for getting more details on job openings, applications, and other necessary information.


Now listen to these sentences. Check to see if your predictions were accurate. Correct the circles and arrows you drew if necessary.

З I Compare what you heard with vour partner.


1 The following items contain important vocabulary from Part One of the lecture. Work with a partner. Using the context and your knowledge of related words, take turns trying to guess the meanings of the words in bold.

1 making phone calls to prospective employers

2 put your resume with a cover letter in a stamped envelope. . .

3 The tools used are much more advanced, and they require more skills and expertise.

4 Technology has not so much changed the process as enhanced it.

5 This makes the search more open.

6 people of different socioeconomic backgrounds from all over the world

7 The Internet has become the tool of preference for getting more details.

8 You might have had a desk full of newspaper ads just to keep track of where you should apply.


Work with your partner. Match the vocabulary terms with them definitions by writing the letter of each definition below in the blank next to the sentence or phrase containing the correct term in step 1. Check your answers in a dictionary if nccessaiy.

a possible

b a letter to explain what you are sending c improved

d organize and remember e social and financial status in society f attempt to find something g ability h favorite way

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When you brainstoi-m about a topic, you allow yourself to think about it freely and can generate unexpected ideas and reactions. A good way to brainstorm is to use a word map that indicates your ideas about different aspects of the topic.

1 Work with a partner. Look at the word map below. Think about crime and

brainstorm different aspects of crime. You may, for example, focus on types of crime, causes and effects of crime, personal experiences with crime, punishments for crime, or any other aspects of crime that occur to you. Write notes about vour thoughts on the word map. Add as many lines to the word map as you wish.

2 Share your ideas with another pair of classmates.


Many fields of study have technical terms that you need to know in order to understand and discuss topics in that field.

Read the technical terms for various types of crime and their definitions (given in parentheses) in the left column of the chart below. Then listen to a series of radio crime reports. As you listen, write the number of the report next to the type of crime that is being reported.


Type of crime

Report number

Arson (setting property’ on fire)

Burglary (going into a building to steal something)

Motor vehicle theft (stealing a car)

Murder (killing someone, also called “homicide”)

Rape (forcing someone to have sexual relations)

Shoplifting (stealing from a store)

Weapons possession (having a weapon without a license)

2 t Compare your answers with a partner.

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