Category Life in society

NOTE TAKING: LISTENING FOR ORGANIZATIONAL PHRASES

Good lecturers make it easy to understand and lake notes on their lectures by using organizational phrases. These phrases may appear in the introduction, the body of the lecture, or the conclusion. You need to listen carefully for these phrases because they will show you the way the lecture is organized and when the main ideas are going to be introduced. Here are some examples of typical phrases:

In the introduction Today, I’m going to talk about. . .

First, I will. . .

Then I’m going to. . .

Finally, I will. . .

In the body of So, first, let’s look at. . .

the lecture Now let’s move on to my second topic, which is. . .

Finally, I want you to consider. . .

In the conclusion Let me summarize for you. . .

So, the three main points that we have examined today are. . .

1 The organizational phrases below are from the lecture. Work out the order in which you think they will appear. Write I next to the phrase that you think will come first in the lecture, 2 next to the second phrase, and so on.

___ a Now let’s turn to . . .

b I’m going to focus on three main ideas in this lecture. . . . c Secondly, I will describe. . . d The subject of todays lecture is. . . e To conclude, lets look at. . .

___ f First of all, we will consider. . .

___ g Finally, I’ll mention. . .

___ h First, then, . . .

2!

3

Compare your answers with a parLner.

► PLAY

Now, listen to these phrases in the order that they actually appear in the lecture and note which comes first, second, third, and so on. Write the letter in the correct blank below.

1_ 2 _ 3 _ 4 _ 5 _ 6 _ 7 8

LECTURE, PART ONE: Reasons for Culture Shock

GUESSING VOCABULARY FROM CONTEXT

1 The following items contain important vocabulary from Part One of the lecture. Work with a partner. Using the context and vour knowledge of related words, take turns trying to guess the meanings of the words in bold.

1 Culture shock can be seen as a manifestation of group pressure in action.

2 Culture shock is a complex phenomenon.

____ 3 Cross-cultural studies have immense practical value for modern society.

4 when you grow up in a particular set of surroundings

5 the rules and guidelines that govern the behavior of the people around you

6 The rules of a social group are not clearly articulated.

7 People often behave irrationally when they are experiencing culture shock.

8 Jt is a highly stressful experience.

2

Work with your partner. Match the vocabulary terms with their definitions by waiting the letter of each definition below in the blank next to the sentence or phrase containing the correct term in step 1. Check your answers in a dictionary if necessary, a put into words

b not logically; not in a reasonable way c something that is complicated and not easy to understand d an example e place; environment f uncomfortable and difficult g very large h control

.. NOTE TAKING: ORGANIZING YOUR NOTES IN OUTLINE FORM

An oulline is a traditional format for organizing notes in English-speaking countries. In a formal outline, main points are usually indicated as Roman numerals (I, II, III, etc.). Under each main point there are usually supporting points – or details – that arc indicated as capital letters (A, В, C, etc.). Underneath these are Arabic numerals {I, 2, 3, etc.).

Remember that you may not be able to organize your notes in the best w’ay wliile you are listening to a lecture. But you should revise your notes as soon after the lecture as possible. [1]

Сл/lture Shock – — 6лroup FreSSure in Acfov

I definition of culture shock. = _____________________________

II 3 Main ideas

A_______

6

<P Applications of culture-shock research

III KeaSonS for culture shock

A one Set of rules growing, up — noti often articulated

5 other countries — _________________________________

C – can’t use ujour ovrn ________________________________

1 people act _________________________________

2 people feel ________________________________

2 I ЗІ 4

► PLAY

Now listen to Part One of the lecture. Take notes on your own paper.

Use your notes to complete the outline in step 1.

Compare the notes you took on your own paper and your completed outline for step 1 with a partner.

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BEFORE THE INTERVIEWS

BUILDING BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE ON THE TOPIC

1 Metaphors are words that give visual pictures of ideas and make the ideas easier to understand. Read the following list of metaphors about the workplace and their definitions. Discuss any words that you don’t understand with other classmates. Check a dictionary if necessary’.

a Glass ceiling: The glass ceiling is the invisible barrier that women often "hit” as they try to get promoted to higher positions within a company.

b Glass escalator: The glass escalator is the invisible machine that seems to promote men to higher positions.

c Sticky floor: The sticky floor is the force that seems to hold women back in less important and lower paid positions.

d Old boys’ club: This refers to the all-male groups that men form and the connections they make with each other to help themselves gain power and success, e Mommy Track: People often think that working women with children are not serious about their jobs. They say that these women are on the “Mommy Track." That is, they are not on the road – or "track” – that leads to higher positions, f Level playing field: The level playing field is like a sports field in which all the players are on the same level and have the same chance to win. Having a level playing field means that no one group has more opportunity to succeed than any other group.

Match each of the following situations with one of the metaphors in step 1. Write the letter of the metaphor next to the situation.

1 A woman talking to her friend about her boss:

"Since my babv was born, my boss looks at me strangely every time I get sick and take a day off. I’m sure he thinks that I just want to stay home with my baby.”

___ 2 A sales manager talking to another sales manager who was just hired:

"Don’t worry, Sam, we’ll help you with your new position. What about getting together with some of the guvs after work tonight?"

3 A company director talking to a personnel manager:

“We need to hire a new’ office assistant. Be sure to tell the people you interview that all employees are encouraged to apply when higher positions become available.”

4 Two employees talking about a third employee:

"He’s gone from sales clerk to assistant manager to manager in eighteen months. That’s a record!”

___ 5 An excerpt from a business report:

"There are about fifty female Executive Vice Presidents in the largest companies, but only two female Chief Executive Officers.”

___ 6 A woman talking to her friend:

“Even though I have good skills, everywhere I go, I seem to get offered the lowest paid positions.”

3

Discuss the following questions in a small group.

1 Do you think that the metaphors listed in step 1 give an accurate picture of the problems that w’omen face in the workplace?

2 Can you give any examples of these metaphors from your own experience?

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LECTURE, PART TWO: Modeling

GUESSING VOCABULARY FROM CONTEXT

1 The following items contain important vocabulary from Part Two of the lecture.

Work with a partner. Using the context and your knowledge of related words, take

turns trying to guess the meanings of the words in bold.

___ 1 Children’s first role models are their parents.

2 There is an old saying in English: “Don’t do as I do. Do as I tell you.”

. . . But this advice doesn’t work most of the time.

3 If you smoke yourself, it is probably ineffective to tell a child not to smoke.

___ 4 Many people do not even realize the impact that they can have on a child.

5 It is common for babysitters, relatives, and child-care centers to take care of children.

___ 6 The most important thing for children is to grow up in an environment

where there are fair rules that are clearly established and followed consistently by everyone.

2

Work with your partner. Match the vocabulary terms with their definitions by writing the letter of each definition below in the blank next to the sentence containing the correct term in step 1. Check your answers in a dictionary if necessary, a influence b not going to work c in the same way all the time d opinion about what you should do e people who are an example for them to copy f places where professionals take care of young children

Ms. бе-fh ftsndman: family l^c4ioni

Fart Two: Mode-li

n5-

Look at these notes on Part Two of the lecture. Notice that the first main idea is number 6 because the last main idea in Part One was number 5.

Pe-fails

Main Ide-aS

(o Mode-l’mg. mcans:

models:

ІПЗИ^

■ Cb’ldr&r have-

9 Mode-fine, is the – most imporfonf way cJrddrcn harn.

10 Parents

worry

about negative lessons

babysitters, professionals in ofiild-eare centers, eaeh other, TV

3 “Pon’T do as I do,
doesn’t work.

11 Most important thi n^t

2

► PLAY

I Now listen to Part Two of the lecture. Take notes on your own paper.

3 I Use your notes to fill in the missing main ideas and details in the columns in step 1.

Compare the notes you took on your own paper and your completed notes for step 1 with a partner.

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