Category Life in society


As a student, you will often need to paraphrase information that you have heard or read. That is, you will need to express the same ideas in your own words. When you paraphrase, you are showing that you understand and can remember what you heard or read.

1 Read the following paraphrase before you listen to the interview with Carlos. Think about what kind of information might belong in the blanks.

V______________________ У


Carlos grew up in a

household. His parents moved from Puerto Rico to the United

Slates when he was ___ , but his mother left

his father shortly afterwards. His mother was a garment worker,

and garment work is ____________________ Sometimes she

needed to work a lot and left the children alone. When Carlos was

older, he used to____________________ with ___

after school until his mother got

home from work.

Carlos’ mother taught him two important lessons about life: to

take________________________________________ and to get

an education. As a child, he learned to_____________________ ,

____________________ ,____________________ , and run

errands. He also studied _ at home with

his mother.

Carlos thinks that it is important for children to have someone

in the family who is a kind of____________________ in their

lives. He thinks children are also influenced by people outside the family. For example, he met a lot of good

when he was growing up who taught him many positive lessons.



Now listen to the interview with Carlos. Try to listen for the information that you need to complete the paraphrase in step 1 and write it in the blanks. You may use more than one word in some blanks.

3 Compare your paraphrase with a partner. They do not have to be exactly Lhe. same.



You will not always agree with what you read or hear. Make it a habit to evaluate what other people say and compare it with your own knowledge and experiences.

Are the ways in which Robert and Carlos were raised similar to the ways you were raised, or are they different? Check (✓) the appropriate column. Then compare your answers with a partner.

Robert’s and Carlos’s Experiences

Your Experience




Grew up surrounded bv his relatives

Lived close to his grandparents and other relatives

Was carefully protected by his parents

Spent a lot of time with his cousins Carlos

Spent a lot of time unsupervised

Was given a lot of independence

Was given chores to do and errands to run

Had a person who was a strong anchor in his life


Read the list in the left column. It shows changes that have taken place in the American family during the past century.

Changes in the American family

Positive consequences

Negative consequences

Divorce rates in the United Slates are higher than ever before.

Many people are – able – to eseape from Very unhappy relationships.

People are spending much more time at work and less time at home.

Farenti Spend leSS time with their children.

Compared to a few decades ago, there are many more families where both parents work.

Меи and women both have the opportunity to have a eareer and alio have children.

Work with a partner. Fill in the chart with as many positive and negative consequences of the changes in the family as you can think of. In your opinion, are these changes in the family harmful to society, or not?

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О ACADEMIC LISTENING AND NOTE TAKING: From Event to Story – Making It to the News

In this section you will hear and lake notes on a two-part lecture given by Ms. Sarah Coleman, a journalist. The title of the lecture is From Event to Story – Malting It to the News. Ms. Coleman will explain the steps journalists take and the difficulties they face as they write the stories we read in the newspaper.



People often discuss the role of newspapers in society, and they frequently disagree about what newspapers should and should not do. Discuss the following questions with a partner.

1 What is a newspaper’s role? Should newspapers give us only information, or opinions too?

2 Should journalists write a story even if they do not have all the facts or if they are not sure that all the facts are correct?

3 What do you think is the most difficult thing about a journalist’s job?


1 Read the guidelines for responsible journalism below. Then with a partner, choose an event that happened recently in your community or country. Find two or three articles about the event in different newspapers. Analyze each article using the guidelines.

Do not tell lies – only tell the truth.

Do nol include unnecessary details – only include details that directly affect

the story.

Do not use sensationalism to make the story more interesting.

Be fair and present all sides of the story.

Do not confuse news and entertainment.


One of the issues that the public faces is how to know if the information that appears in newspapers is accurate. Discuss the following questions with your partner in relation to the articles you read for step I. Support your answers.

1 How do you know the journalists wrote the truth?

2 How do you know if they were fair and presented all sides of the story?

When you are reading a text, you can see how it is organized because it is divided into paragraphs. It may also have section headings. You can also read a text slowly, underline parts you do not understand, and come back to them later.

In a lecture, it is more difficult to follow the organization of the speakers ideas. However, signal words can help you. These words act as markers or signposts that indicate what kind of information the speaker will give next. In Chapter 1, you learned signal words for introducing examples and definitions. Signal words can be used for other purposes, too. Here are some examples of commonly used signal words:

To indicate time To reinforce an idea or introduce a contradiction To list ideas

To introduce a new idea To introduce an opposite idea

today, nowadays, sometimes, usually, at that point in fact, actually

first of all, then, after that, finally and, also, in addition, furthermore but, however, on the other hand

1 The signal words in the left column are used by the lecturer. Read them and match each one with a synonym from the column on the right. Fill in each blank with the correct answer.



a These days


First of all

b But


In fact

c Occasionally



d Generally



e To begin with



f Actually


Now listen to some parts of the lecture that include the signal words in step l. As you listen, fill in the blank with the correct word(s). Then compare your answers with a partner.

1 _________________ , more than ever before, we are surrounded by news.

2 _________________ ., so many new stories appear every day that it’s impossible

to keep up with them!

3 _________________ , there are different kinds of journalists.

4 _________________ , journalists are called reporters because they "report”

the news.

5 , unplanned events are more exciting!

6 , it’s important not to report too much personal

information or anything that is scandalous.

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this section you will conduct a short survey to find out what other people think the
most recent fads are. Then you will share your findings with a small group or the class.


When you are asked to talk about a topic to a group of people, it is often a good idea to collect ideas from your friends and other people that you know. Conducting our own survey may give you ideas that you had not thought of before.

1 A fad is a kind of fashion that becomes popular very suddenly and then usually goes away suddenly, too. Interview three people outside your class about recent fads. Try to find people of different ages and backgrounds. Here is a way to start the interview:

Hi. I’m doing a survey for my English class about fads. Can you tell me about a fashion item that is particularly popular these days?

And what about a food or drink item that is particularly popular at the moment?


Take notes on what the people you interview say. Write your notes in this chart. Also write down the age and sex of each person you interview.

Survey about Fads

Person 1

Person 2

Person 3



Items That Are Particularly Popular at the Moment

A fashion item:

A food or drink:

A game or sport:

A musician or entertainer:

A movie or TV show:

З I Nou: share your findings about recent fads with a small group or with the class.

О ACADEMIC LISTENING AND NOTE TAKING: Culture Shock – Group Pressure in Action

In this section you will hear and take notes on a two-part lecture given by Ivan Zatz, a professor of social sciences and cross-cultural studies. The title of the lecture is Culture Shock – Group Pressure in Action. Professor Zatz will explain why and how culture shock occurs.

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