Category NOTEWORTHY

Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 The American Character

Family in the United States

Religion

Passages:

Birth, Marriage, and Death

A. Discussion

Discuss the following questions with your classmates:

• How typical do you think the first picture is of U. S. families?

• Are single-parent families common in your country?

• Is it common for parents in your country to leave children in day care while they work?

• Who takes care of the children when parents are not home?

Q B. Vocabulary and Key Concepts

Read through the sentences, trying to imagine which words would fit in the blanks. Then listen to a dictation of the full sentences, and write the missing words in the blanks.

1. A hundred years ago, one heard the same comments about the family that one hears today—in short, that the American family is

2.

3. To the contrary, the very ily has changed__________

of the fam-

in the last fifty years.

Proof of this disintegration included evidence that women were not completely content with their_____________________________

2. To be sure, the family is a very

for what is happening in the society.

3. Demographically, the

of the family was the traditional one.

4. The country idealized the family in these years: there was a

________________________ to the family and a

________________________ for it.

5. Three characteristics stand out in this period:_____________

to social norms, greater male domination of the family, and clearcut roles.

6. These decades were characterized by a

________________________ of conformity to social norms and

included the sexual revolution and the women’s movement.

7. Another important movement was the drive for self-expression

and__________________________________________________

8. The new configuration of the family had to include families of

———————————————————————————- with or

without children.

9. The number of single-parent households_____________________

and the number of unmarried couples________________________

10. They see a continuing_________________________ in divorce

rates since the 1980s hut also a decline in birth rates after an increase in the 1980s.

11. There is an attempt to ________________________ work with

family obligations, and concern seems to be shifting from

—————————————- to the new familism.

12. Places of work may offer more________________________ work­ing hours and

day care.

13. For its part, the government could________________________

parental leave and family__________________________

Follow-up: Check the spelling of the dictated words with your teacher.

Discuss the meanings of these words and any other unfamiliar words

in the sentences.

C. Predictions

Using the photograph and the vocabulary exercise as a starting point, write three questions that you think will be answered in the lecture.

Examples: • How big are American families compared to those in

other parts of the world?

• Does a divorced mother sometimes move back with her parents?

1.

2.

3.

Follow-up: After you have written your questions, share them with your teacher and your classmates.

D. Notetaking Preparation

1. Key Words: Content Words

A good notetaker knows that it is neither efficient nor necessary to take down a lecture word for word. A good notetaker listens for rele­vant information and then uses key words to take down only the es­sential information. A good way to pick key words is to concentrate on the content words you hear: nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs. (Auxiliaries, the verb to be, pronouns, and prepositions are structure words, words that receive less stress when spoken. They are less important in your notes, too.)

Practice reducing information to key words by using the sentences from Vocabulary and Key Concepts. Do sentences 5, 7, 8, 11, and 12. Sentence 2 has been done for you.

2. Proof of disintegration: women not content with domestic role.

5.

11.

12.

Follow-up: With a partner, test your key words by trying to recall all the information in the sentences from what you wrote. Your partner will check to see if you can recall the message, not necessarily the exact words of the original sentences. Then change roles and test your partner’s key words in the same way.

2. Rhetorical Cues

Lecturers usually use rhetorical cues to help their listeners follow the lecture. A rhetorical cue is a word or even a sentence that lets us know that some important information is coming or that a new subtopic or point is being introduced. Look at these rhetorical cues, and decide in which order you will probably hear them in today’s lecture. Order them from first (1) to fifth (5).

__ a. Well, let’s proceed in chronological order and start with the

traditional familism.

__ b. The third period, the new familism, is harder to see because

we are living in this period now.

__ c. The second period, the period of individualism, saw three

important social and political movements.

__ d. To make this point clearer, we’ll take a look at how the

American family has changed in the last fifty years by look­ing at three different time periods.

__ e. Because individualism is so often mentioned in our discus­sion of U. S. culture and people, I should make a little detour before we discuss it.

Follow-up: Discuss your answers as a class.

Q A.

First Listening

Listen for general ideas. The lecturer looks at changes in the family over the last fifty years and divides the changes into three different periods, each with its own label. For each period, the lecturer looks at cultural, economic, and demographic aspects of the family. As you lis­ten, decide what the three different periods are, and write them under ST1, ST2, and ST3. Take down details you have time for, but make sure you take down the subtopics.

NOTES

Introduction:

ST1

ST3

Follow-up: Now check your major subtopics with your teacher.

Q B. Further Listening

While listening again, write down necessary relevant details below the main subtopic to which they belong. Remember to use key words to save time.

Follow-up: Check your notes. If you missed important information or have doubts about your notes, (1) verify them by asking a classmate questions to fill the gaps in your notes or (2) listen to the lecture a third time. When verifying your notes with a classmate, do not show each other your notes,- ask specific questions to get the information you need.

Examples: • Do you have any idea what domestic means?

• Did you understand the explanation of individualism?

• How many different movements were discussed for the second period?

This is also a good time to check to see if the lecturer answered your Predictions questions about the lecture.

HI. POSTLISTENING______________________________________________________

Qa. Accuracy Check

Listen to the following questions, and write short answers. Use your notes. You will hear each question one time only.

1. 2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10. __________________________________________________

Follow-up: Check your answers with your teacher. If your score is less than 70 percent, you may need to listen to the lecture again or rewrite your notes so that you can understand and retrieve the information in them.

B. Oral Activities

1. Review

In groups of three, use your notes to reproduce sections of the lecture. Each member of your group should bring up a point from the introduc­tion that he or she finds interesting. Then Student A will present the information in subtopic 1, Student В the information in subtopic 2, and Student C the information in subtopic 3. If you don’t understand or you disagree with what you hear, wait until your classmate finishes. Then bring your notes into agreement by seeking clarification, as follows:

• Would you mind repeating what you said about the sexual revolu­tion? I didn’t catch it.

• I don’t think my notes agree with yours on the matter of cultural de­velopments during the second period. In my notes, I wrote that….

If your class is multinational, prepare a short oral report about the fam­ily in your country, covering the points below. Work with the other students from your country.

If your classmates are all from your country, discuss the family in your country as a class. Discuss these points:

• Is there a predominant family configuration in your country?

• Has it changed in the last fifty years?

• What effects have economic, demographic, and cultural changes had on the family in your country?

C. Collaboration: Summary

Work with a partner, and use your notes to write a summary of the lec­ture in 125 words or less. Answer this question for your first main idea sentence: Has the U. S. family changed a little or a lot in the last fifty years? Then characterize each of the three periods by choosing relevant information about demographic, cultural, and economic points.

Follow-up: Share your summary with at least one other pair. Find something you like in each summary that you read. Alternatively, your teacher may ask for volunteers to read their summaries to the class.

D. Pursuing the Topic

The following are recommended for a closer look at the American family:

Books/Periodicals/Internet

http://unstats. un. org/

The United Nations Statistics Division: This site has demographic and social statistical information from around the world. From the home page, locate Demographic and Social statistics; then locate the link to World’s Women 2000 to find information about women, families, wages, marriages, and other issues gathered in 2000.

www. welleslev. edu/WomenSt/Familv Gender Resources/web. html Families and Gender Studies Resources Page: This site contains links to many other sites that deal with abortion, adoption, gay families, motherhood, reproductive technologies, work, and family social policy, among others. To find additional information and resources, do a general Internet search for the keyword Family Studies.

Chollar, Susan. "Happy Families: Who Says They All Have to Be Alike?" American Health, July-August 1993, pp. 52-57.

Chollar discusses a variety of successful family configurations.

Etzioni, Amitai. "Children of the Universe." UTNE Reader, May/June 1993, pp. 52-61.

Etzioni discusses the roles of U. S. parents and government in raising children.

Kimmel, Michael. "What Do Men Want?" Harvard Business Review, December 1993, pp. 50-63.

Changing economics force American men to redefine themselves, but U. S. companies aren’t keeping up to allow men to take on their new roles.

Films/Videos

Mrs. Doubtfire, Chris Columbus, director; 119 minutes, PG-13.

This comedy shows the extremes to which a father will go to be near his children after their mother divorces him.

Kramer vs. Kramer, Robert Benton, director; 105 minutes.

A serious film that shows the break-up of a marriage and investi­gates the issue of child custody in such cases.

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Education

Public Education: Philosophy and Funding

Assign one group member to write down the questions; all members will help plan and compose the questions. For the lecture on the phi­losophy and funding of public education, write five short-answer ques­tions that can be answered with a few words or sentences. In addition, write two essay questions; word the questions so that they can easily be turned into topic sentences.

Short-Answer Questions

1. _________________________________________________________ 2.

3.

4.

5.

Essay Questions

1. ___________ 2.

Follow-up: Write your questions on the board to discuss as a class.

Written follow-up: Prepare for the quiz by writing answers to the questions your class has proposed. You may have abbreviations in your notes, but do not use abbreviations other than standard ones like U. S. in your answers.

Postsecondary Education: Admissions

Chapter 11

Assign one group member to write down the questions; all members will help plan and compose the questions. For the lecture on post­secondary education, write five short-answer questions that can be answered with a few words or one or two sentences. In addition, write two essay questions,- word the questions so that they can easily be turned into topic sentences.

Short-Answer Questions

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Essay Questions

1. ____________

2. __________

Follow-up: Write your questions on the board to discuss as a class.

Written follow-up: Prepare for the quiz by writing answers to the questions your class has proposed. You may have abbreviations in your notes, but do not use abbreviations other than standard ones like U. S. in your answers.

UNIT QUIZ PREPARATION 131

Distance Education

Chapter 12

Assign one group member to write down the questions,- all members will help plan and compose the questions. For the lecture on distance education, write five short-answer questions that can be answered with a few words or one or two sentences. In addition, write two essay questions,- word the questions so that they can easily be turned into topic sentences.

Short-Answer Questions

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Essay Questions

1.

2.

Follow-up: Write your questions on the board to discuss as a class.

Written follow-up: Prepare for the quiz by writing answers to the questions your class has proposed. You may have abbreviations in your notes, but do not use abbreviations other than standard ones like U. S. in your answers.

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To the Teacher

Teachers will find that Noteworthy offers both stimulating topics for study and great versatility. Any one of its three major goals can be emphasized to fit the needs of different classes. A teacher who chooses not to devote the extra time needed for students to take notes could use the materials for listening comprehension with a focus on cultural content. Individual lessons could be used to provide background for further treatment of a topic, and suggestions for doing so are given. And, of course, the teacher who wishes to concentrate on production could use the lectures as input for the accompanying oral and written exercises.

Note: The symbol Q in the margin indicates that the material needed to complete the listening activity is on the accompanying Audio CD or cassette tape.

FEATURES IN THE THIRD EDITION

A new feature added to the third edition of Noteworthy is a video component. The lecture for each chapter is now available on DVD or VHS. The video is meant to be used as a complement to the tra­ditional audio program. Students may opt to view a chapter’s lec­ture on video in order to simulate a more authentic classroom lis­tening and notetaking experience.

• The audioscript for Noteworthy is now conveniently located in the back of the Student Book, in Appendix A.

• The Unit Quizzes and Quiz Answer Keys are now located on the Heinle Listening and Notetaking Web site. Teachers can download them from notetaking. heinle. com.

• New topics, "Globalization" and "Distance Education," as well as updated lectures from the second edition.

• Extensive work on rhetorical cues to help students detect the organ­ization of the lectures.

• Communicative follow-ups to lectures in which students verify their notes by asking each other questions.

• Accuracy checks that require students to refer to their notes rather than answer questions from memory.

• Transfer activities that accommodate EFL as well as ESL classes.

• Collaborative activities for writing summaries and essay question answers as well as for developing critical thinking skills.

• Suggestions for pursuing the topic.

• Quiz preparation for each unit. Students review lectures and collaborate in writing short-answer and essay exam questions.

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APPENDIX В: ANSWER KEYS

Unit One

The Face of the People

Chapter 1 The Population

I. PRELISTENING_____________________

B. Vocabulary and Key Concepts

1. census

2. populous

3. race

4. origin

5. geographical distribution

6. made up of

7. comprises

8. relativcly/progressively

9. Metropolitan/densely

10. decreased/death rate

11. birth rate/increasing

12. life expectancy

D. Notetaking Preparation

1. Number Notation

a. 18.5 mill.

f. 4%

b. 80%

g. 1990

c. 1/2

h. 40%

d. 13.4 mill.

i. 3/4

e. 2:10

j. 33.1%

2. Rhetorical Cues

a. TOC o "1-5" h z 3

b. 1

c. 2

d. 5

e. 4

A. First Listening

Major Subtopics

ST1 population by race and origin ST2 geographical distribution ST3 age and sex

III. POSTLISTENING

A. Accuracy Check

1. People’s Republic of China, India

2. 281 mill.

3. Hispanics (12.5%)

4. Texas

5. the South and the West

6. 20%

7. by more than 5 million

8. about 6 years

9. 2.2 years

10. a decreasing birth rate and an increasing life expectancy

Chapter 2 Immigration: Past and Present

I. PRELISTENING

B. Vocabulary and Key Concepts

240 APPENDIX В

1. immigrated

2. Natural disasters/droughts/famines

3. persecution

4. settlers/colonists

5. stages

6. widespread unemployment

7. scarcity

8. expanding/citizens

9. failure

10. decrease

11. limited

12. quotas

13. steadily

14. trend

15. skills/unskilled

D. Notetaking Preparation

• 1. Dates: Teens and Tens

a. TOC o "1-5" h z 1850 f. 1776

b. 1915 g. 1882

c. the 1840s h. 1929

d. from 1890 to 1930 i. 1860

e. between 1750 and 1850 j. from approximately 1830 to 1930 2. Language Conventions: Countries and Nationalities

Country

People

France

French

Germany

Germans

Scotland: Ireland

Scotch-Irish

Great Britain

Britons; the British

Denmark

Danes

Norway

Norwegians

Sweden

Swedes

Greece

Greeks

Italy

Italians

Spain

Spaniards

Portugal

Portuguese

China

Chinese

Philippines

Filipinos

Mexico

Mexicans

India

Indians

Russia

Russians

Poland

Poles

The Scandinavian countries are Sweden, Norway, and Den­mark. The Southern European countries are Italy, Greece, Spain, and Portugal. The Eastern European countries are Russia and Poland.

II, LISTENING_____________________________________________

A. First Listening

Major Subtopics

ST1 the Great Immigration

ST2 reasons for the Great Immigration and why it ended ST3 immigration situation in the United States today

III. POSTLISTENING

A. Accuracy Check

1. colonists or settlers

2. Dutch, French, German, Scotch-Irish, Blacks

3. The third, 1890-1930

4. Southern Europe and Eastern Europe

5. The population doubled, there was widespread unemployment, and there was a scarcity of farmland.

6. free land, plentiful jobs, and freedom from religious and political persecution

7. the failure of the potato crop in Ireland

8. laws limiting immigration from certain areas, the Great Depres­sion, and World War П

9. They are largely non-European.

10. Industry doesn’t need a large number of unskilled workers.

Chapter 3 Americans at Work

I, PRELISTENING____________________

B. Vocabulary and Key Concepts

1. statistics

2. goods producing/service

3. stricter/illegal

4. per capita

5. benefits/health insurance

6. wages/workweek

7. romanticize

8. study/productive

9. rising/opposite

10. outproduce

11. stressed

12. matched

13. stagnated

14. CEOs/profits

15. unions/favor

D. Notetaking Preparation

2. Rhetorical Cues

a. TOC o "1-5" h z 2

b. 1

c. 3

d. 4

II. LISTENING

A. First Listening

Major Subtopics

ST1 a historical look at work in America ST2 how U. S. workers are doing today

Ш. POSTLISTENING

A. Accuracy Check

1. 38%

2. 3%

3. service industries

4. 19% in 1900; 60% in 1999

5. $4,200 in 1900; $33,700 in 1999

6. health insurance

7. U. S. workers

8. They are less stressed (more vacation weeks)

9. No

10. to CEOs, the stock market, and corporate profits

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Religion

A. Discussion

Discuss the following questions with your classmates:

• Where do you think the people in the picture are?

• What are the people doing?

• What do you think the expression "freedom of religion" means?

• Are there many different religions in your country?

Q B. Vocabulary and Key Concepts

Read through the sentences, trying to imagine which words would fit in the blanks. Then listen to a dictation of the full sentences, and write the missing words in the blanks.

1. The U. S. government cannot ask for information on religious affil­iation on a basis.

2. One________________________ done in 2002 shows that 76 per­

cent of the total population identified themselves as Christian,

with 52 percent identifying themselves as_____________________

and 24 percent as Catholic.

3. The number of Americans belonging to churches or other reli­gious organizations is surprisingly high compared to other nations.

4. This is not to suggest that religious__________________________

are not important in these other nations.

5. Freedom of worship is________________________ by the First

Amendment to the Constitution.

6. The First Amendment also_________________________ the

separation of church and state.

7. The importance of religion in American history should not be

8. I’d like to talk about the increasing__________________________

religion has________________________ in fairly recent history.

there was a religious_________________________ in the 1970s

that surprised many people.

7. The religious revival was_________________________ in nature

and, at first, largely confined to issues in the private sphere of life.

8. These issues, however, were very_________________________ in

nature and became quite_________________________ in a short

time.

9. Perhaps the "rise of the religious right" is a temporary in American life.

10. Some people predict that American society will become

increasingly_________________________ and less religious in the

future; others predict a more_________________________

political atmosphere based on conservative religious belief.

Follow-up: Check the spelling of the dictated words with your teacher.

Discuss the meanings of these words and any other unfamiliar words

in the sentences.

C. Predictions

Using the photograph and the vocabulary exercise as a starting point,

write three questions that you think will be answered in the lecture.

Examples: • What were the controversial issues that were involved in

the religious revival in the 1970s?

1._________________________________________________________

2.

3.

Follow-up: After you have written your questions, share them with your teacher and your classmates.

D. Notetaking Preparation

To save time while taking notes, it is useful to use symbols and abbre­viations. You may want to develop some of your own for words and phrases that you often hear. However, there are many that are com­monly used that you may find very helpful. The following are some of these commonly used symbols and abbreviations. Put a check next to the ones that are new to you and that you think might be helpful in your notetaking. Refer back to this page from time to time to see if you are using all the symbols and short abbreviations that would be useful in your notetaking.

Symbols

+ and, plus

& and

less, minus

= equals, is the same as, consists of

ф does not equal, is different from

> is greater than, is more than

< is less than

-> causes, results in, leads to

/> does not cause, does not result in, does not lead to

<- is caused by, results from

<■/■ is not caused by, does not result from

therefore

because, because of /" rises, increases

goes down, decreases

1 minute, feet (e. g., З’ = 3 feet)

" inches or ditto marks (repeat the word immediately above)

° degrees

% percent, percentage

$ dollar, money

e. g. for example

i. e. that is

etc. et cetera

cf. compare

c. about/approximately

ca. about/approximately

w/ with

w/o without

Listen to and take notes on the following sentences, which contain information taken from several lectures for which you could use some of the symbols and abbreviations above. Try to take down content words, abbreviate as many of these content words as possible, and use your notetaking symbols and abbreviations. You will hear each item two times.

(1-3 from lecture on population)

1.

2.

3.

(4-5 from lecture on immigration)

4.

4.

(6-7 from lecture on American family)

6.______________________________________________

7.

Follow-up: (1) Compare your notes with your classmates’. Reconstruct the full message of what you heard from your notes. (2) When you finish taking notes on today’s lecture on religion, look at your notes and see if there were places that you missed where you could have used a symbol such as < or a short abbreviation such as w/o to save time.

2. Rhetorical Cues

Read the following sentences, which contain rhetorical cues to help you follow the organization of the lecture. Decide in which order you will probably hear them. Number them from first (1) to fifth (5).

____ a. Let’s consider the first way America differs from these

other modernized nations.

____ b. Finally, let’s take a closer look at this rise in the influence

of religion on American political life.

____ c. Let’s take a look at two ways that religion in the United

States differs from religion in other modernized nations.

____ d. However, there is another somewhat contradictory differ­ence that we should also consider.

____ e. However, whether this group will be able to influence

political life for a long time cannot be known.

Follow-up: Discuss your answers as a class.

», LISTENING_______________________________________________

Q A. First Listening

In the introduction the lecturer discusses the reasons for the great number of churches in the United States. At the end of the introduc­tion he mentions the three subtopics he will go on to develop. Take down details you have time for, but be sure to take down the subtopics.

NOTES

Introduction:

ST2

ST3

Conclusion:

Follow-up: Check your major subtopics with your teacher before you listen to the lecture for the second time.

Q В. Further Listening

While listening again, write down necessary relevant details below the main subtopic to which they belong. Remember to use symbols and abbreviations to save time.

Follow-up: Check your notes. If you missed important information or have doubts about your notes, (1) verify them by asking a classmate questions to fill the gaps in your notes or (2) Hsten to the lecture a third time. When verifying your notes with a classmate, do not show each other your notes; ask specific questions to get the information you need.

Examples:

Do you remember which is the second-largest religious group in America?

• What did the lecturer say about the First Amendment?

• What does "religious right" mean?

• Which people were surprised by the religious revival?

This is also a good time to check to see if the lecturer answered your Predictions questions about the lecture.

III. POSTLISTENING_________________________________________

Q A. Accuracy Check

Listen to the following questions, and write short answers. You will hear each question one time only.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10._________________________________________________________

Follow-up: Check your answers with your teacher. If your score is less than 70 percent, you may need to listen to the lecture again or rewrite your notes so that you can understand and retrieve the information in them.

В. Oral Activities

1. Review

In pairs, use your notes to reproduce sections of the lecture. Student A will present the introduction and subtopic 1, including details, to Stu­dent B. Then Student В will present subtopics 2 and 3 with details to Student A. Check what you hear against your notes. If you don’t under­stand or you disagree with what you hear, wait until your partner fin­ishes. Then bring your notes into agreement by seeking clarification, as follows:

• Excuse me, what did you say about the television and film media?

• I don’t think your numbers are correct.

• Could you repeat what you said about the future role of religion in America?

2. Transfer

Discuss these questions with a partner or in small groups if you and your classmates come from different countries. If not, discuss them with your teacher and classmates.

• What are the major religious groups in your country?

• What is the relationship between the government and religion in your country?

• Do you think religion is becoming more or less important in your country? Explain.

C. Collaboration: Writing Answers to Essay Questions

To help you prepare for the essay questions in the Unit Quiz at the end of this unit, in groups of three or four, plan and write essay answers to the following questions on religion in the United States. Appoint one member of the group to do the actual writing; all members of the group should participate in planning and helping with the answers. At this point, you should refer to the guidelines in Unit 1, Chapter 2, p. 18. Review the guidelines before you begin to write essay answers.

Questions:

1. Contrast religion in the United States with religion in modernized European countries.

2. Describe the conflict between the government and the religious right on the issues of legalized abortion and prayer in schools.

Follow-up: Share your answers with at least one other group. Or share your answers orally as a class, and discuss the strengths in each answer.

D. Pursuing the Topic

The following are recommended for a closer look at religion in the United States:

Books/Periodicals/Internet

Find any contemporary encyclopedia in English. Look up the names of various religious minorities in the United States, such as "Mormons," "Seventh-Day Adventists," or "Amish." Read to learn about their historical background, their major beliefs, and any problems they have had as a religious minority.

Films/Videos

Witness, Peter Weir, director; 112 minutes, R.

This film depicts the life of the Amish in the United States: their commitment to nonviolence and the resulting culture clash when one of them accidentally witnesses a brutal murder.

Interview

Interview an American about his or her views on religion in America. Beforehand, prepare interview questions as a class to ask on

• religious background

• role of religion in his or her life

• his or her opinion about freedom of religion, the separation of church and state, prayer in public schools, and the relationship between politics and religion

• any other questions your class is interested in

Write down your answers to the questions, and share the informa­tion with your classmates.

Variation: Invite an American to visit your class, and have the whole class interview him or her, using the questions you wrote.

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