Category NOTEWORTHY

Crime and Violence in the United States

I. PRELISTENING__________________________________________________

B. Vocabulary and Key Concepts

1. violent/aggravated

2. enforcement/stringent

3. white-collar/embezzlement

4. aggressive/predisposed to

5. to blame/shortcomings

6. root/proliferation

7. deprived of/strike out

8. underclass/disproportionately

9. curbs/socializing

10. values/compassion

11. conscience/bring up

12. punishment/deterrent

13. financiers/lacking

14. takes over/leads to

15. benefits/take for granted

D. Notetaking Preparation

1. Structuring

a. Crime statistics match public’s perception of less crime

b. Three secondary support ideas:

1. 1994-2001: violent crime decreased 52%

2. possible reasons for decrease

3. statistics on white-collar crime (embezzlement, bribery, etc.) not as clear

c. Two details for each point.

1. 1994: 51 victims per 1,000/in 2001, 24 victims per 1,000

2. stricter law enforcement in cities/stringent penalties on repeat offenders

3. statistics hard to get and/It doesn’t scare people

2. Rhetorical Cues

a. 2

d. 6

b. 5

e. 3

c. 1

f. 4

II. LISTENING__________________________________________

A. First Listening

Major Subtopics

ST1 liberal theory of crime

ST2 conservative theory of crime

ST3 some solutions to the crime problem in the U. S.

III. POSTLISTENING

A. Accuracy Check

1. 52%

2. embezzlement, bribery, political corruption, and/or dangerous cor­porate policies

3. racism, poverty, and injustice

4. No

5. the liberal theory

6. by giving them values, a conscience

7. socialization by the family and fear of punishment

8. They’ve enjoyed the benefits of society.

9. good education, health care, and employment

10. conservative

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Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Chapter 9 American Trademarks

Multiculturalism

Crime and Violence in the United States Globalization

Multiculturalism

A. Discussion

Discuss these questions with your classmates:

• Why do you think the crucible and the patchwork quilt are often used as symbols of the multicultural character of U. S. society?

• What does the crucible do to different metals mixed in it?

• Is the culture of your country heterogeneous, as in the United States, or homogeneous?

Q B. Vocabulary and Key Concepts

Read through the sentences, trying to imagine which words would fit in the blanks. Then listen to a dictation of the full sentences, and write the missing words in the blanks.

1. I understand why a foreigner might react_____________________

to U. S. culture, especially if the person comes from a more ethnically and racially____________________________________________ society.

2. It seems naive or even perverse to_________________________

the existence of a culture that has such great___________________

on other cultures, for better or worse.

3. A________________________ pot, literally a pot in which metals

like aluminum and copper are melted in order to blend them, is the traditional_____________________________________ for the way the differ­

ent groups of immigrants came together in the United States.

4. Some people feel that the monoculturalist view of many national­ities blending together into an____________________ :________________ of all

the parts in it is a__________________________

5. Opponents point out that many groups have at times been

________________________ from participating in U. S. society

through segregation and__________________________

6. U. S. society probably did not assimilate new cultural input until

the new immigrants were_________________________ with less

7. The metaphor the multiculturalists use is the patchwork quilt, a

________________________ of separate,______________________

subcultures.

8. and the_________________________

of children of another race make a difference in how people in a family look at themselves.

9. The point here is that the ethnically and racially pure individuals

————————————– by the multiculturalist view are

more the_________________________ than the rule.

10. We_______________________ some of our culture from our

families and_________________________ some of our culture

unconsciously.

11. If_________________________ does not take place in the first

________________________ , it most certainly does by the second

or third.

12. Monoculturalists fear a________________________ , or even

destruction, of U. S. culture, whereas_________________________

of the pluralistic view disagree.

13. It would be wrong to assume that the________________________

culture we’ve been speaking about_________________________

the culture of only one group.

14. _______________________ of the pluralistic view of culture cite

________________________ , especially Mexican immigrants, the

single largest immigrant group since the 1990s.

Follow-up: Check the spelling of the dictated words with your teacher.

Discuss the meanings of these words and any other unfamiliar words

in the sentences.

C. Predictions

Using the photographs and the vocabulary exercise as a starting point, write three questions that you think will be answered in the lecture. Examples: • Is U. S. culture becoming more like the cultures of new

immigrants?

• Is American culture basically European?

1.

2.

3.

Follow-up: After you have written your questions, share them with your teacher and your classmates.

D. Notetaking Preparation

1. Key Words: Listening

Work with a partner to practice taking down key words: nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs. One partner will read Vocabulary and Key Concepts sentences 1-4 while the other takes notes. Then switch parts for sentences 5-8.

Follow-up: With your partner, test your key words by recalling all the information in the sentences from what you wrote. Your partner will check to see if you can recall the message, not necessarily the exact words. Then change roles and test your partner’s key words.

2. Rhetorical Cues: Transition Words

Formal speech, like formal writing, is characterized by more frequent use of transition words and phrases. Transition words like however, therefore, and in fact help the listener understand the relationship be­tween the lecturer’s ideas. A good understanding of transition words will make a formal lecture more coherent to you. Test your knowledge of the italicized words on the next page by using them to complete the sentences in the exercise.

• Nevertheless, on the other hand, and however all point out con­trasts between two ideas.

• For instance presents examples.

• In fact is used for emphasis.

• Rather is used like instead.

• Furthermore is used like also.

a. The United States is not a racially homogeneous society; , Japan is.

b. The melting pot metaphor is a very old one.________________ ,

it’s been used for well over a century.

c. Culture comes to people in different ways.

________________________ , we inherit some, we absorb

some, and we choose some.

d. There are many proponents of the multiculturalist view; , I don’t really agree with this view.

e. The multiculturalists don’t use the metaphor of the melting

pot._________________________ , they use the patchwork quilt.

f. Monoculturalists fear a fragmentation of U. S. culture because of

a massive Latino immigration._________________________ ,

pluralists see the bright side of this immigration.

g. There are two problems with this theory. Some existing groups were excluded from participating fully in society,-

________________________ , newly arrived groups were

discriminated against.

Follow-up: Discuss your answers as a class.

Culture note: "Latino" is now a more a frequent way to refer to a Spanish – or Portuguese-speaking resident in the U. S. The use of "Hispanic" to refer to someone who speaks Spanish is objectionable to many Spanish-speaking people who feel no particular connection to Spain and to those who have no connection at all to Spain. ("Hispanic" was used in Chapter 1 to be consistent with the terminology in the 2000 census.)

Q A First Listening

Listen for general ideas. The lecturer begins with some objections to current views of U. S. culture, views that she finds naive. The main part of the lecture is a discussion of three different views of multicul – turalism, and these views might sound similar at first. However, they are quite different, if only in subtle ways. Listen for these three differ­ent views, and write them down under ST1, ST2, and ST3. Take down details you have time for, but make sure you take down the subtopics.

NOTES

Introduction:

ST1

ST3

Follow-up: Now check your major subtopics with your teacher.

Q B. Further Listening

While listening again, write down necessary relevant details below the main subtopic to which they belong. Remember to use key words to save time.

Follow-up: Check your notes. If you missed important information or have doubts about your notes, (1) verify them by asking a classmate questions to fill the gaps in your notes or (2) listen to the lecture a third time. When verifying your notes with a classmate, do not show each other your notes; ask specific questions to get the information you need.

Examples: • By any chance, did you catch what was said about the im­

pact of U. S. culture on the world?

• Could you help me out? What does "in all fairness" mean?

This is also a good time to check to see if the lecturer answered your Predictions questions about the lecture.

Q A. Accuracy Check

Listen to the following questions, and write short answers. Use your notes. You will hear each question one time only.

1. 2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10._________________________________________________________________

Follow-up: Check your answers with your teacher. If your score is less than 70 percent, you may need to listen to the lecture again or rewrite your notes so that you can understand and retrieve the information in them.

B. Oral Activities

1. Review

In groups of four, use your notes to reproduce sections of the lecture. Student A will present the introduction, Student В subtopic 1, and so on. Check what you hear against your notes. If you don’t understand or you disagree with what you hear, wait until your classmate finishes. Then bring your notes into agreement by seeking clarification, as follows:

• I beg your pardon, but I didn’t catch what you said about the im­pact of the United States on other countries.

• I’m sorry. I don’t believe I followed what you said about discrimi­nation against certain groups.

2. Transfer

If your class is multinational, prepare a short oral report about the cul­ture of your country, covering the points below. Work with the other students from your country.

If your classmates are all from your country, discuss the culture of your country as a class. Discuss these points:

• Is your culture racially and ethnically homogeneous or heteroge­neous?

• How open is your culture to influences from other cultures? Do people who spend long periods of time in your country assimilate to the culture, or do they maintain their own cultures?

• What metaphor do you think fits your culture?

C. Collaboration: Summary

In groups of three, with one member acting as secretary, write a one – paragraph summary of the lecture on multiculturalism. Use the guide­lines below to decide which information to include. Write the answers in complete sentences in paragraph form, but limit your summary to 100 words.

1. Write a first general sentence that tells how many views of culture the lecturer mentions and tell whether the views are similar or different.

2. Characterize each view briefly. Mention the metaphor used to describe it as well as its main characteristics.

Follow-up: Exchange summaries with at least one other group. Find something you like in other groups’ summaries. Alternatively, each group can read its summary to the class, which can then vote on the best one.

D. Pursuing the Topic

The following are recommended for a closer look at the multicultural nature of the United States:

Books/Periodicals/Internet

Postrel, Virginia I. "Uncommon Culture." Reason, May 1993, pp. 67-69.

Postrel discusses how and why assimilation takes place in the United States.

Rodriguez, Richard. Days of Obligation: An Argument with My Mexi­can Father. New York: Viking, 1992.

Rodriguez, born of Mexican immigrant parents, discusses his con­troversial views of U. S. multiculturahsm.

Search under the terms multiculturalism or pluralism for thousands of Web sites, many of which originate from or relate to many countries around the world besides the United States, including Australia, Canada, Nepal, India, and the United Arab Emirates, among many others.

Films/Videos

The Joy Luck Club, Wayne Wang, director,- 138 minutes, R.

The movie charts the lives and loves of four Chinese immigrants and their American-born daughters.

Mississippi Masala, Mira Nair, director; 118 minutes, R.

The movie explores the hves of Asian Indians living in the rural U. S. South and their dealings with African American and white communities around them.

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Unit Five The Official Side

Chapter 13 The Role of Government in the Economy

Assign one group member to write down the questions; all members will help plan and compose the questions. For the lecture on the role of government in the economy, write five short-answer questions that can be answered with a few words or one or two sentences. In addition, write two essay questions; word the questions so that they can easily be turned into topic sentences.

Short-Answer Questions

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Essay Questions

1.

2.

Follow-up: Write your questions on the board to discuss as a class.

Written Follow-up: Prepare for the quiz by writing answers to the questions your class has proposed. You may have abbreviations in your notes, but do not use abbreviations other than standard ones like U. S. in your answers.

Chapter 14 Government by Constitution: Separation of Powers/Checks and Balances

Assign one group member to write down the questions; all members will help plan and compose the questions. For the lecture on govern­ment by constitution, write five short-answer questions that can be answered with a few words or one or two sentences. In addition, write two essay questions; word the questions so that they can easily be turned into topic sentences.

Short-Answer Questions

1. _________________________________________________________

2. ___________________________________________________

3.

4.

5.

Essay Questions

1. ____________

2.

Follow-up: Write your questions on the board to discuss as a class.

Written Follow-up: Prepare for the quiz by writing answers to the questions your class has proposed. You may have abbreviations in your notes, but do not use abbreviations other than standard ones like U. S. in your answers.

UNIT QUIZ PREPARATION 167

Chapter 15 Common Law and the Jury System

Assign one group member to write down the questions; all members will help plan and compose the questions. For the lecture on common law and the jury system, write five short-answer questions that can be answered with a few words or one or two sentences. In addition, write two essay questions,- word the questions so that they can easily be turned into topic sentences.

Short-Answer Questions

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Essay Questions

1. ___________

2.

Follow-up: Write your questions on the board to discuss as a class.

Written Follow-up: Prepare for the quiz by writing answers to the questions your class has proposed. You may have abbreviations in your notes, but do not use abbreviations other than standard ones like U. S. in your answers.

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Number Notation

During today’s talk you will need to write down many numbers. Some of these will be expressed as whole numbers, some as percentages, some as fractions, and some as ratios. Let’s do a little practice before the lecture. Here are some examples: If you hear "thirty-seven mil­lion," you should write this whole number as 37 mill. If you hear "three fourths" or "three quarters," you should write this fraction as 3/4. If you hear "one out of six," you should write this ratio as 1:6. If you hear "thirteen point four percent," you should write this percent­age as 13.4%. Let’s practice.

a.

b.

g-

h.

c.

f.

d.

e—————————————– j———————————————-

Follow-up: Check your answers with your teacher by saying each one as you write it on the board.

1. Rhetorical Cues

Lecturers usually use rhetorical cues to help their listeners follow the lecture. A rhetorical cue is a word or even a sentence that lets us know that some important information is coming or that a new subtopic or point is being introduced. Look at these rhetorical cues, and decide in which order you will probably hear them in today’s lecture. Order them from first (1) to fifth (5).

__ a. Another way of looking at the population…

___ b. Today we’re going to talk about population…

__ c. First of all, let’s take a look…

__ d. Now, to finish up…

__ e. Before we finish today…

Follow-up: Discuss your answers as a class.

Q A. First Listening

Listen for general ideas. After a brief introduction, the lecturer lists his three subtopics. He then goes on to discuss each one individually. As you listen, write down the three major subtopics in the spaces labeled ST1, ST2, and ST3. Take down details you have time for, but make sure you take down the subtopics.

NOTES

Introduction:

ST1

ST2

ST3

Follow-up: Now check your major subtopics with your teacher.

Q B. Further Listening

While listening again, write down necessary relevant details below the main subtopic to which they belong. Remember to use proper number notation to save time.

Follow-up: Check your notes. If you missed important information or have doubts about your notes, (1) verify them by asking a classmate questions to fill the gaps in your notes or (2) listen to the lecture a third time. When verifying your notes with a classmate, do not show each other your notes,* ask specific questions to get the information you need.

Examples: • In what regions do most people in the United States live?

• What percentage of the population is black?

• Did the lecturer say there were 6 million more women than men in the U. S. population?

This is also a good time to check to see if the lecturer answered your Predictions questions about the lecture.

<w) A. Accuracy Check

Listen to the following questions, and write short answers. Use your notes. You will hear each question one time only.

1. ——————————————————————————————–

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

Follow-up: Check your answers with your teacher. If your score is less than 70 percent, you may need to listen to the lecture again or rewrite your notes so that you can understand and retrieve the information in them.

B. Oral Activities

1. Review

In pairs, use your notes to reproduce sections of the lecture. Student A will present the introduction and subtopic 1, including details, to Stu­dent B. Student В will present subtopics 2 and 3 with details to Student

A. Check what you hear against your notes. If you don’t understand or you disagree with what you hear, wait until your partner finishes. Then bring your notes into agreement by seeking clarification, as follows:

• Excuse me. I didn’t hear your percentage for Americans of Asian origin. Could you repeat it, please?

• I don’t think I agree with what you said about the five most popu­lous states. I think the five most populous states are….

• I’m afraid my notes are different from yours. …

If your class is multinational, prepare a short oral report about the population of your country, covering the points below. Work with the other students from your country.

If your classmates are all from your country, discuss the population of your country as a class. Discuss these points:

• the size of the population and where it is distributed geographically

• the most populous regions or cities

• whether the population in your country is increasing or decreasing and why

C. Collaboration: Summary

In groups of three, with one member acting as secretary, write a one – paragraph summary of the lecture on population. Use the questions be­low to decide which information to include. Write the answers in com­plete sentences in paragraph form, but limit your summary to 125 words.

• What is the present U. S. population?

• What are the percentages of the different races that make up the U. S. population?

• Which regions and states are the most populous? Is the population more rural or urban?

• Why are there more women than men? How much higher is women’s life expectancy than men’s?

• Is the average age of the population increasing or decreasing?

Follow-up: Exchange summaries with at least one other group. Check if the other group has summarized the lecture in a similar fashion.

D. Pursuing the Topic

The following are recommended for a closer look at the population of the United States:

Books/Periodicals/Internet

WWW, census. gov

This Web site has hundreds of tables and some interesting articles from the 2000 census. Besides more information about the cate­gories discussed in the lecture, you can find information on the composition of families, marital status, and employment of U. S. residents.

Any contemporary encyclopedia in English. Look up "United States," and find a section that interests you. For example, you could choose among population, rural and urban life, history, geography, and climate.

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A. Accuracy Check . Distance Education

I. PRELISTENING

B. Vocabulary and Key Concepts

1. setting foot

2. instruction/separated

3. correspondence

4. accredited/community

5. upgrade/continuous

6. budget crunches

7. access/technology

8. modes/vary

9. via mail/download

10. residency

11. dropout/traditional

12. unscrupulous/alluring

13. credentials

D. Notetaking Preparation

1. Deciphering Notes

a. No, many distance education programs have residency require­ments.

b. No, admission requirements are the same as for on-campus pro­grams.

c. Three examples of computer requirements that online study might require are the latest version of Windows, a microphone, and a modem. (Answers may vary.)

d. Students are more likely to complete traditional programs than distance education programs. (Dropout rate is higher for distance education.)

2. Rhetorical Cues

a. 2

d. 6

b. 5

e. 3

c. 1

f. 4

II, LISTENING___________________________________________________

A First Listening

Major Subtopics

ST1 reasons why distance education is growing so rapidly

ST2 how distance education works, that is, what the modes of delivery are

ST3 some things people considering distance education need to be aware of

III. POSTLISTEIMING

A. Accuracy Check

1. by time and by distance

2. by correspondence (by mail)

3. 1892

4. 90%

5. at the same time

6. (Answers may vary.)

7. No (There are time limits.)

8. No (They are about the same.)

9. cable modem, DSL

10. No (The dropout rate is higher for distance education courses and programs.)

I. PRELISTENING

1. ownership/property

2. free enterprise

3. interfere/laissez-faire

4. contracts/national defense

5. control/comply with

6. income/public assistance/welfare

7. competitive/antitrust/monopoly

8. stability

9. taxation/inflation

10. unemployment/balance

11. expenditures/interest

12. conservative/favor

13. static/composition

a. No. They were suspicious of strong central government.

b. The Confederation was unable to solve many problems facing the new nation and needed a stronger central government.

c. None. In a laissez-faire economy, the government does not inter­fere with the economy.

d. The government imposed an income tax for the first time. After the Civil War, the government had money for internal improve­ments to the country.

D. Notetaking Preparation

1. Prelecture Reading

B. Vocabulary and Key Concepts

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