Provided below is an explanation of the purpose of each part of a full chapter, which requires about three 50-minute periods to complete. (Teachers who opt to do Pursuing the Topic will need additional periods.)

Discussion: to introduce the topic, to stimulate students’ curiosity, and to begin establishing a cognitive schema for the lecture through a discussion of illustrations.

Vocabulary and Key Concepts: to familiarize students with new sub – technical vocabulary and with the major concepts of the chapter.

Predictions: to get students to invest in the lesson by predicting the content of the lecture through their questions. As students share their prediction questions with the class, a schema for the content is further established.

Notetaking Preparation: to give students strategies for understanding the organization of lectures and for taking down information in an or­ganized manner and in a meaningful, usable form.

Listening: to lead students through a series of listenings to distinguish the main subtopics from supporting details. Some guidance is given, but content is stressed over skills, and the emphasis is on repeated practice at notetaking.

Accuracy Check: to check students’ comprehension and the complete­ness of their notes through a ten-question short-answer quiz.

Oral Activities: to provide small-group oral practice that draws on the language and information of the lecture as input to improve students’ oral competence. At the same time, students check the completeness of their notes, which they use for these activities.

Review: reconstruction of different portions of the lecture.

Transfer: questions for discussion or for an oral report on a similar topic in the students’ countries.

Collaboration: to provide opportunities for students to further develop language and academic skills in small groups through discussion, sum­mary writing, and writing answers to essay questions.

Pursuing the Topic: to offer suggestions for further study of the topic through readings, videos, the Internet, and interviews.

Unit Quiz Preparation (at the end of each unit): to help students antici­pate unit quiz questions by reviewing notes in order to distinguish main ideas from supporting ones. Students write quiz questions and answer them.

Unit Quiz: to evaluate students’ mastery of the skills and content taught and to simulate the college or university experience of taking a test on content. Quizzes require both short answers and essays. The Unit Quizzes are available on the Heinle Listening and Notetaking Web site: notetaking. heinle. com.

Read More

Passages: Birth Marriage and Death

I. PRELISTENING_________________________

B. Vocabulary and Key Concepts

1. bewildering/ingrained

2. shower/expectant

3. mother-to-be/pretext

4. expressions of envy/reassured

5. unheard of

6. banished/delivery

7. baptism

8. observed/fiancees

9. empowered/civil

10. bride/groom/superstitious

11. banned/hazardous

12. cremated

13. memorial/wake

14. eulogy/deceased

15. condolences/bereaved


A. Accuracy Check

1. shortly before the baby is due

2. (1) baby showers not always a surprise, and (2) men sometimes attend

3. baptism

4. the bride’s family

5. a religious ceremony

6. something old, something new, something borrowed, and some­thing blue

7. the groom

8. in case of cremation

9. a sympathy card and flowers

10. white

Unit Three

American Trademarks

Read More


A. Discussion

Discuss the following questions with your classmates:

• Does this wedding look similar to weddings in your country?

• How do you think this couple will celebrate the birth of their baby?

• What is happening in the bottom photo?

(w! B. Vocabulary and Key Concepts

Read through the sentences, trying to imagine which words would fit in the blanks. Then listen to a dictation of the full sentences, and write the missing words in the blanks.

1. Customs and traditions are often_________________________ to

foreigners, partly because the customs are so___________________

that most local people accept them without ever thinking about them.

2. The baby________________________ is given by a close friend

or relative of the_________________________ mother.

3. The________________________ -________________________ –

________________________ is often invited to someone’s home

on some_________________________ so that she can be surprised.

4. Through advice and_______________________________________

________________________ , the expectant mother is

________________________ about the desirability of her


5. A few years ago, it was almost________________________

________________________ for men to participate in baby


6. In the past, men were________________________ from the

________________________ room, but today many men arc

with their wives to "coach" them through the birth.

7. Christians usually have a religious service, called a, for the new baby.

8. Some customs are generally____ concern­ing ___________ , the engagement period, and the

wedding ceremony.

9. Because priests, rabbis, and ministers are all legally

________________________ to marry couples, it is not necessary

to have both a_________________________ and a religious


10. Some customs about the_________________________ and

______________________ are rather______________________

in nature.

11. Some churches and other places where weddings are held have

recently_________________________ the throwing of rice as being

________________________ to guests, who can slip and fall on it.

12. At the time of death, one decision is whether the funeral will be held in a church or in a funeral home,- another decision is whether

the body will be________________________ or buried in a


13. The family may choose to have a—————————————-

service instead of a funeral. In either case, the family may hold

a_______________________ , where the body of the deceased

is displayed in its casket.

14. At a funeral, a________________________ is usually given by

someone close to the—————————————- person.

15. Those who want to express their—————————————-

usually send a sympathy card to the_________________________


Follow-up: Check the spelling of the dictated words with your teacher. Discuss the meanings of these words and any other unfamiliar words in the sentences.

C. Predictions

Using the photograph and the vocabulary exercise as a starting point, write three questions that you think will be answered in the lecture.

Examples: • Must a child’s baptism take place in the same church

that the parents were married in?

• Why are dead bodies displayed in a casket before the funeral?




Follow-up: After you have written your questions, share them with your teacher and your classmates.

Q D. Notetaking Preparation

1. Key Words: Listening

We have already talked about using key words to save time and take good notes. Think of key words as a telegram, that is, the basic infor­mation in reduced form. Practice reducing the following sentences you will hear to key words. You will hear each sentence twice. Listen, de­cide on the key words, and write them in the space below. For exam­ple, as you listen to the first sentence, see how the author has used key words to reduce the information.

a. ethnic groups follow old customs, but still general culture in U. S.





Note: The notetaker here not only reduced the number of words in the sentence greatly but also reworded it somewhat. Can you recreate the message of the sentence from these notes? Or would your notes look different?

Follow-up: Use your key words to reproduce the messages you heard. Add any words necessary to make your sentences clear and grammati­cal. Work with a partner, or check your answers as a class.

2. Adverbs as Content Words

Because adverbs are content words, it is important to understand them and to get them down in your notes. Read these sentences from the lecture, focusing on the italicized adverbs. Discuss the difference in meaning, if any, when you substitute the adverb in parentheses.

1. Almost always a baby shower is arranged in secret so as to be a complete surprise to the mother-to-be. (Occasionally)

2. Usually she was invited to someone’s home on one pretext or an­other. (Ordinarily)

3. There is always a very emotional outpouring of good wishes, (often)

4. In the past, when births mainly took place at home, it was a strictly female event, (mainly)

5. Men never went into the delivery room, (rarely)

6. For Christians, this service is ordinarily called a baptism, (some­times)

7. It is very hard to generalize, but there are some customs that are quite generally observed, (traditionally)

I. LISTENING___________________________________________________________

Q A. First Listening

The lecturer begins his talk with a discussion of cultural traditions in general and of how the United States is somewhat different from many countries. He then announces his subtopics: birth, marriage, and death. Because you already know the subtopics, you will have time to write down some main and secondary ideas of support in the first listening. Use key words and structure your notes.





(w? В. Further Listening

While listening again, write down necessary relevant details below the main subtopic to which they belong. Remember to use content words as key words to save time.

Follow-up: Check your notes. If you missed important information or have doubts about your notes, (1) verify them by asking a classmate questions to fill the gaps in your notes or (2) listen to the lecture a third time. When verifying your notes with a classmate, do not show each other your notes,- ask specific questions to get the information you need.

Examples: • Can you explain what a baby shower is?

• What was said about marriage superstitions?

• What’s the difference between a funeral and a memorial service?

This is also a good time to check to see if the lecturer answered your Predictions questions about the lecture.

II. POSTLISTENING_____________________________________________________

!w) A. Accuracy Check

Listen to the following questions, and write short answers. Use your notes. You will hear each question one time only.











Follow-up: Check your answers with your teacher. If your score is less than 70 percent, you may need to listen to the lecture again or rewrite your notes so that you can understand and retrieve the information in them.

В. Oral Activities

1. Review

In pairs, use your notes to reproduce sections of the lecture. Student A will present the introduction and subtopic 1, including details, to Stu­dent B. Student В will present subtopics 2 and 3 with details to Student

A. Check what you hear against your notes. If you don’t understand or you disagree with what you hear, wait until your partner finishes. Then bring your notes into agreement by seeking clarification, as follows:

• My notes are a little different from yours. I don’t believe men are allowed to come to baby showers.

• Excuse me. I didn’t catch what you said about the tradition of what brides wear or carry at their weddings.

2. Transfer

Choose one of the major subtopics (birth, marriage, or death) and care­fully describe your customs that differ from those in the United States. Your teacher may ask you to present your report orally to a small group or the whole class, or to write a paragraph to hand in.

C. Collaboration: Discussion

Discuss the questions below in small groups. Appoint one person to re­port your group’s opinions to the class.

1. Is it surprising that people in the United States, with its great racial and ethnic diversity, celebrate birth, marriage, and death in similar ways? Why or why not?

2. Death is a topic that is very difficult for most Americans to talk about. What reasons might there be for their avoidance of the topic of death?

3. The lecturer mentioned two fairly recent changes in American society. One is that men are now sometimes invited to baby showers and the other is that more and more men accompany their wives in the delivery room when the baby is born. Do you think these are positive changes? Why or why not?

4. The lecturer discussed superstitions connected to weddings, specifically that a groom should not see the bride in her wedding dress before the ceremony. What reason might there be for this superstition? Does your culture have superstitions connected to weddings? Superstitions about births and deaths? What are they?

D. Pursuing the Topic

The following are recommended for a closer look at life passages in the United States.


Kubler-Ross, Elisabeth. On Death and Dying. New York: Macmillan, 1969.

The author discusses terminal illness, dying, and how those involved can deal with these issues.


Father of the Bride, Charles Shyer, director; 114 minutes, PG.

The comedy depicts a father’s reaction to his daughter’s falling in love, getting engaged, and finally getting married.

Steel Magnolias, Herbert Ross, director; 118 minutes, PG.

A sentimental look at marriage, motherhood, and the lives of women in a small Louisiana town.

Now that you have completed the chapters in this unit, your teacher may want you to take a quiz. Your teacher will tell you whether or not you can use your notes to answer the questions on the quiz. If you can use your notes, review them before taking the quiz so that you can anticipate the questions and know where to find the answers. If you cannot use your notes, study them carefully before you take the quiz, concentrating on organizing the information into main ideas and details that support these main ideas.

Work in small groups to help each other anticipate the questions your teacher will ask. Before breaking up into groups, review your notes and highlight important, noteworthy points. After reviewing your notes, break up into groups. Discuss and write specific short – answer questions and more general essay questions. (For guidelines in writing questions, see the Unit Quiz Directions at the end of Unit 1.)

Write your group’s questions on the following pages.


Read More

Government by Constitution

Separation of Powers/Checks and Balances


A. Discussion

Discuss the following questions with your classmates:

• In which of these building does the president of the United States live?

• Which building houses the meeting chambers of the House of Representatives and the Senate?

• Which of these buildings is the highest court in the United States?

• Who makes the laws in your country?

• If people in your country feel a law is unfair or unjust, what do they do?

Сї B. Vocabulary and Key Concepts

Read through the sentences, trying to imagine which words would fit in the blanks. Then listen to a dictation of the full sentences, and write the missing words in the blanks.

1. Two important principles of the United States Constitution are

the_________________________ of powers and the system of

________________________ and_________________________

2. The Constitution provides for three_________________________

of government: the_________________________ , the executive,

and the_________________________

3. The legislative branch is primarily responsible for

________________________ ,or making, new laws. The executive

branch executes laws by signing them and by seeing that they are

4. The judicial branch deals with those who are

a law or who are involved in a

5. The judicial branch also handles_____________

and reviews existing laws to make sure they are


U. S. Constitution.

6. Each branch has its specific_________________

and its own particular power, which it must not

7. The presidential_________________________

_________________________________________________ is an

obvious example of checks and balances.

8. Because it’s difficult for Congress to________________________

a presidential veto, the veto may________________________

________________________ this new law forever.

9. Although President Nixon was_________________________ of

illegal activities, he was never removed from office by Congress because he

10. By finding laws against abortion————————————– ,

the Supreme Court in effect made abortion

11. In the area of

., the Supreme Court declared it

illegal to practice

________________________ in any form.

12. Probably the most important effect of this change was the of public schools.

13. After the president________________________

_________________________________________________ for the

Supreme Court, the Congress must__________________________

his choice.

14. Because there are only nine Supreme Court Justices, one new

Justice can change the_________________________

_________________________________________________ on the

Court itself.

Follow-up: Check the spelling of the dictated words with your teacher.

Discuss the meanings of these words and any other unfamiliar words

in the sentences.

C. Predictions

Using the photograph and the vocabulary exercise as a starting point, write three questions that you think will be answered in the lecture.

Example: • Which branch of government is the president part of?




Follow-up: After you have written your questions, share them with your teacher and your classmates.

D. Notetaking Preparation

1. Prelecture Reading

As we mentioned in the previous lesson, U. S. university students most often prepare for each class by reading a text chapter, an article, or even a case study. This preparation makes the instructor’s lecture, usual ly on a topic related to the reading, easier to follow and to take notes on.

Before listening to the lecture, read the following passage carefully and answer the comprehension questions. You will notice how this preparation will aid your comprehension of the lecture.

Judicial Review

Judicial review is the power of a court to invalidate or overturn any law passed by the legislature that the court believes to be uncon­stitutional. The concept of judicial review as exercised by the Supreme Court of the United States is almost unique in the world. It can be called an American invention. Nowhere else does the judi­ciary of a country exercise final say over laws passed by the legisla­ture. This enormous power of judicial review by the Supreme Court was established in a famous case several years after the Constitution was written, Marbury v. Madison (1803). The Court’s opinion stated that the Constitution was superior to any acts by the legislature and that it was the Court’s duty to void any laws that went against the Constitution. This power was not explicitly expressed in the Consti­tution, and even today, almost 200 years later, the Supreme Court’s power to void laws passed by the legislature is still controversial.

If we compare judicial review in the United States with that in a few other countries, we will see just how unusual it is. In Great Britain, the right of Parliament (the legislature) to make any law it wants to cannot be challenged by the courts. The courts can inter­pret but not determine the validity of a law. In Germany, the judi­ciary actually has had such power since shortly after World War II, but it has been slow to exercise judicial review for cultural and historical reasons. The judiciary in Canada has had this power since 1982, but whether it will exercise it in a way similar to that exer­cised by the U. S. Supreme Court cannot be known yet.


a. What is judicial review?

b. Is judicial review guaranteed by the U. S. Constitution? Explain.

c. Which of the following countries has no provisions for judicial review—Britain, Canada, or Germany?

d. Do Germany and Canada exercise judicial review more or less frequently than the United States does? Explain.

Follow-up: Check your answers with your teacher before you


2. Practicing the Language of Political Science

The following exercise will help you learn language used when dis­cussing the separate powers that each branch of the U. S. government has and the checks and balances that each branch has over the other two branches. Look over the schematic, which shows some of the pow­ers that each branch has and how some of these powers specifically limit the powers of the other two branches. Then answer the questions that follow the schematic.

The U. S. Government

Executive Branch

Judicial Branch

Legislative Branch

• Interprets laws

• May declare a law unconstitutional

• Interprets treaties

• Sends suggestions to Congress (i. e., proposes new legislation)

• May veto bills sent by Congress for signature

• Nominates judges

• Makes treaties with other countries

• Prepares federal budget

• Approves federal budget

• Approves treaties

• Sends bills it has passed to president for signature

• May override veto by 2/3 majority

• Must approve appointment of judges

• May impeach the president

• May impeach judges

Work with a partner to answer these questions:

a. Which powers in each branch are checked by another branch?

b. Which powers seem to have no checks against them? Follow-up: Check your answers with your classmates.


A. First Listening

The lecturer begins with a brief discussion of the Constitution of the United States and tells you its two guiding principles. She then an­nounces her first subtopic, the three branches of the U. S. government. She goes on to explain the two guiding principles. Finally, she expands on the second principle with several examples and illustrations. (You will need to use the notetaking skills that you have learned so far to organize your notes below.)


Follow-up: Check your subtopics with your teacher. How did you organize your notes? Yours may be different from another student’s. What is important is that your notes reflect the basic organization and information of the lecture.

0 B. Further Listening

While listening again, write down necessary relevant details below the main subtopics to which they belong.

Follow-up: Check your notes. If you missed important information or have doubts about your notes, (1) verify them by asking a classmate questions to fill the gaps in your notes or (2) listen to the lecture a third time. When verifying your notes with a classmate, do not show each other your notes,- ask specific questions to get the information you need.

Examples: • What does the judicial system do? Do you have that in

your notes?

• I don’t have anything in my notes about who chooses the people on the Supreme Court. Do you have it in your notes?

• What can the president do if he doesn’t like a law that the Congress sends him to sign? I didn’t catch that word.

This is also a good time to check to see if the lecturer answered your Predictions questions about the lecture.

III. POSTLISTENING______________________________________________

0 A. Accuracy Check

Listen to the following questions, and write short answers. You will hear each question one time only.

1. _________________________________________








Follow-up: Check your answers with your teacher. If your score is less than 70 percent, you may need to listen to the lecture again or rewrite your notes so that you can understand and use them later.

B. Oral Activities

1. Review

In small groups, discuss your notes, section by section, to be sure that all members have a complete set of notes for each subsection. At the end of this activity, your instructor will ask various class members to reproduce sections of the lecture for the whole class to listen to. At that time, check what you hear against your notes. If you don’t under­stand or you disagree with what you hear, wait until the speaker fin­ishes. Then bring your notes into agreement by seeking clarification, as follows:

• Did you say that Congress can veto a law? My notes say that the president can veto a law.

• Excuse me, could you repeat what you said about Watergate?

2. Transfer

If you and your classmates come from different countries, discuss these questions with a partner or in small groups. If not, discuss them with the whole class.

• How is the power to make and enforce laws in your country divided? Explain.

• Can a law be overturned by the judicial branch in your country? If so, under what circumstances?

• Do you think the legislative branch of a government should have the power to remove the president of a country from office?

C. Collaboration: Writing Answers to Essay Questions

To help you prepare for the essay questions in the Unit Quiz at the end of this unit, plan and write essay answers to the following questions on the Constitution and the separation of powers. Work in groups of three or four. Appoint one member of the group to do the actual writing; all members of the group should participate in planning and helping with the answers.


1. List the three branches of the U. S. government and describe their primary duties.

2. What are the two guiding principles of the U. S. Constitution, and what is their purpose?

Follow-up: Share your answers with at least one other group that has written on the same question(s). Or share your answers orally with the class, and discuss the strengths in each answer.

D. Pursuing the Topic

The following are recommended for a closer look at issues related to the Constitution of the United States:


TIME, July 6, 1987.

This issue commemorates the 200th anniversary of the American Constitution. Numerous articles and essays discuss various aspects of and issues involved with the Constitution, among them its history and impact, landmark Supreme Court decisions, and current issues.

Do an Internet search, using the keyword U. S. Constitution, to find a multitude of sites that offer the text and an analysis of the U. S. Constitution.


All the President’s Men, Alan J. Pakula, director; 138 minutes, PG.

This film is based on the true story of two investigative reporters who broke the story of the Watergate scandal, which eventually brought down the Nixon administration.

Read More


Discussion: Question students briefly about the photographs to get them to focus on them and to introduce the topic. Then discuss the questions as a class. Write important vocabulary on the board, if time permits. The activity should require no more than a few minutes, just enough time to introduce the topic and arouse curiosity. Time: 4-5 minutes.

Vocabulary and Key Concepts: Have students quickly read through the sentences silently before they listen to the dictated sentences on the tape. This encourages students to invest in the exercise and may be done as homework. After they listen to the tape and fill in the blanks, quickly go over the spelling of each word, and discuss the meanings of words they ask about. Time: 10-12 minutes.

Predictions: Ask students to write three questions about the possible content of the lecture so that they make more of an investment in the lesson. If the example questions aren’t enough to get them started writ­ing their own questions, ask a "leading" question or two: Do you know how many people there are in the United States? (pause) How would you write the question to find out? Time: 8-10 minutes.

Notetaking Preparation: Go over the skill in Section D. l and have stu­dents practice the skill if appropriate. Try to move quickly, because they will practice the skill again during the lecture. Some skill exer­cises could also be assigned as homework, and those that require pre­lecture reading should be. Section D.2, which generally deals with the organization of the lecture, can be done as homework and checked in class to save time. Time: will vary depending on the particular skill in D. l and whether D.2 is done in class or at home.

Listening: The text calls for two listenings per lecture and additional listening outside of class for those students who fail to get at least 70 percent on the Accuracy Check. There is nothing magical in these numbers. Students stronger in listening comprehension may do well with fewer listenings from the beginning, and weaker students may need more, especially at the beginning of the course. Take into account the general level of the class when deciding how many whole-class lis­tenings to do. Try to maintain some pressure without pushing students to the frustration level. If possible, provide an opportunity for addi­tional listening outside class. Ideally, in one class period, you should get through at least the Prelistening Activities and the First Listening. Time: depends on the length of each lecture and the number of listen­ings done in class. (Actual lecture times vary from about 7 minutes to about 12 minutes.)

Accuracy Check: Do as quickly as is feasible. After students listen to and answer questions by referring to their notes, discuss only those an­swers that students disagree on. Try to raise their consciousness about why they missed an answer: Did they misunderstand the lecture? Were

their notes inaccurate? Or were they unable to locate the information in their notes? Sometimes students try to write down too much and miss relevant information. Sometimes they may simply be unable to locate information that they have in their notes. Recommendations for further listening and/or rewriting notes should be made at this time. Strive to complete and discuss the Accuracy Check by the end of the second class. Time: 12-15 minutes.

Oral Activities:

Review: Be sure that every student is involved in the activity by having individual students responsible for assigned sections of the lecture. (If students get their "assignments" the previous day, they can prepare at home and save class time.) You can vary the activity by having pairs or small groups of students prepare the same sec­tion together. Sometimes you may want individual students to re­port on their sections to just one other student; at other times, pairs or small groups can report to the whole class. Time: 10-25 minutes, depending on the complexity and length of the lecture and on the format you choose.

Transfer: Students in multinational classes will benefit from doing reports about their own countries on topics from the lectures. Stu­dents from the same country can work together to prepare the re­ports and present the information as a panel or assign one individ­ual to present it. In either case, students should prepare brief notes to speak from rather than write out the full report. Students in ho­mogeneous classes, such as those in EFL settings, will find class discussions more interesting and less duplicative of effort and in­formation. Time: will vary depending on the activity chosen, class size, and number of different national groups.

Collaboration: Appoint one member of the group as a leader, one as a recorder, and one as a reporter (when appropriate). Establish realistic time limits for completing the activity. Allow enough time for sharing upon completion of the task. Each group should receive peer feedback especially for summary writing and essay question answer writing. If time is short, assign fewer questions per group for the discussion and essay question answer writing. Time: depends on which skill is being practiced and the number of questions assigned.

Pursuing the Topic: If your schedule and course design allow, you may want to use our suggestions for further study of the topic. We have tried to include suggestions for further listening, reading, and speaking, but not every topic lends itself easily to all three. The suggestions are obviously not exhaustive, but they may remind you of works that you find more suitable for use with your students. Or the students them­selves can treat this activity as a research project in which they look for articles, stories, and books that they read and report to the class on. Students in an EFL setting, who will have difficulty finding informants

for interviews, may be able to locate one American who would be will­ing to be interviewed by the whole class. Time: will vary according to the material and activities chosen.

Follow-up Activities: Keep all follow-up activities as brief as possible. Besides providing feedback, they are also meant to remind students of the purpose of the just-completed task and to provide closure before moving to the next activity. Time: 2-3 minutes.

Unit Quiz Preparation: Our experience is that students retain informa­tion better and do better on quizzes when they anticipate the questions that will be asked. Use this section to help students anticipate quiz questions by having them review their notes and then write practice short-answer and essay exam questions. To save class time, students can review their notes at home by looking at the information in terms of main ideas and details that support the main ideas within each ma­jor subtopic. In class, small groups should then be ready to write short – answer questions that focus more on the details of the lecture as well as essay exam questions that focus more on the main ideas, albeit with support from details.

Students may well benefit from a reminder about correct question form: question word/auxiliary/subject/verb, in most cases. You may also want to walk around and give some guidance as students work, especially in the first units, to make sure that students understand their task. It is probably advisable to tell them that the quiz you even­tually give will not derive directly from their questions,- at the same time, if their notes are accurate and well-organized, they will have asked many of the same questions that the authors provide in the unit quizzes. Use the follow-up as a chance for students to evaluate their comprehension/retention of the lecture. Discuss their short-answer questions; use the better ones as review. Discuss their essay ques­tions; choose one or two for written follow-up if desired. Time: 8-10 minutes per chapter.

Unit Quizzes (Available on the Heinle Listening and Notetaking Web site http://notetaking. heinle. com: The primary purposes of the quizzes are to build motivation to take good notes and to simulate a college ex­perience. In a college class, students take notes that they later use to study from to prepare for tests. The time interval can be rather short, or it can be quite long—several weeks, for example.

We suggest giving a quiz on each unit. Assign point values to each question. Short-answer questions obviously earn fewer points than es­say questions, and you may want to weight more difficult questions with additional points. On a 25-point scale, the short-answer questions could count a total of 10 points and the essay questions, if both are as­signed, a total of 15 points.

We suggest that you let students know how much each question is worth and how much time they should devote to each portion of the quiz. If the class has studied all three chapters in a unit, you will have

Read More