Category Life in society




Following is a paraphrase of the interviews with David and Amy. Fill in the blanks using your own words. In some cases, you will need to write more than one word.

David says that the _ _______ and the__________________

exacerbate the problem of juvenile crime. He believes that kids are essentially

____________ . He thinks they need more _

____________________ systems and after-school activities. He also thinks

they need good role models. However, he believes that if someone does commit a crime, the punishment should be________________________________________ , but

Amy says that to deter people from committing crime, you have to talk

about social factors such as whether there are enough

for everyone and enough social support systems. But if convicted criminals are

sent to jail, we need programs to______________________ them, such as drug

treatment programs and _____________________ programs. Unfortunately,

many of the programs that she thinks are needed have been

Amy believes that one reason there are so many recidivists is because criminals have a bad experience in jail. When prisoners are released, Amy

thinks they need_________________________________________ to help

them go back into society.

2 Compare your answers with a partner. Remember that your answers will probably not be exactly the same.



Incarceration rates per 100,000 population








United South Czech England/ Germany Denmark Nether – Japan

States Africa Republic Wales lands

Source: From p. 163, Michael Hughes, Carolyn J. Kroehler and James W. Vender Zanden, Sociology: The Core, 6e, © 2002. Reprinted with permission of The McGraw-Hill Companies.

Look at the following bar graph. It shows the incarceration rate per 100,000 people in eight countries. Incarceration means being pul into prison.


Discuss the following questions with a partner.

1 Which country had the most people in prison in 1985 (or 1989)? Which country had the least people in prison?

2 Which country’ had the most people in prison in 1995? Which country had the least people in prison?

3 What is your reaction to the information in the graph? Does any of the information surprise you? If so, why?

4 How do you think David and Amy would react to the information in th. e graph?

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INTERVIEW WITH BARBARA: Life in the city, country, and suburbs

Here are some words and phrases from the interview with Barbara printed in bold

and given in the context in which you will hear them. They are followed by definitions.

to escape from the urban ills: problems

unless you like to putter around and build things: spend time doing small projects around the house

Besides, the country has bugs: insects

You are being stung: bitten by insects

People who like a lot of stimulation, you know, can’t hack it: are not comfortable with it, dislike it

The whole car culture thing kicks in: becomes important

In the country and the suburbs, you’re labeled: thought of in a limited, restricted way by your neighbors




1 Read the following questions before you listen to the interview with Barbara.

1 What is interesting about living in a city?

2 What happens when city people go to the country?

3 Why are cars so important in the country?

4 What are the pros and cons of the suburbs?

5 Is city life lonely? Is it dangerous?




Now listen to the interview and take notes.

Work with a partner. Tell your partner part of the interview, and then let him or her continue. Include answers to the questions in step 1. (You can review your notes first, but do not look at them while you are speaking.)

INTERVIEW WITH KENNY: Pros and cons of city living

Here are some words and phrases from the interview with Kenny printed in bold and given in the context in which you will hear them. They are followed by definitions.

What finally drove me out was the traffic: made me leave I felt like I was trapped: unable to escape

I didn’t want them cheering for different sports teams: supporting I have my ups and downs: sometimes I feel good and sometimes I feel bad My mother was dropping my daughter off: bringing her home

This is just a law-abiding grandmother: someone who obeys the law Other people complain about graffiti: writing on walls wild, remote places: distant, away from the city, with few people Give me some trees, streams, boulders, and animals: rocks on gray drizzly days: rainy

The gray of the buildings blends in with the gray of the sky: mixes with, becomes like the ideal place to live: peifect, best

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Breaking the Rules


his unit examines crime and punishment. In Chapter 7, you will hear interviews with parents who are concerned about crime, and with two crime victims. You will also hear a lecture on types of crime and methods of solving crime. In Chapter 8, you will hear two perspectives on how society should try to keep crime rates low, including ways to prevent crime and punish criminals. The lecture is on one of the most controversial topics in the United States today – the death penalty.

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The Death Penalty

In this section you will hear and take notes on a two-part lecture given by Jonathan Stack, a filmmaker who has made several documentaries on prisons. Mr. Stack frequently lectures on criminal justice. The title of this lecture is The Death Penalty.



1 Look at the graph below. It shows the number of prisoners executed (put to death) in the United States between 1930 and 2000.

250 200 150 100 50 0

1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 Source: U. S. Department of Justice, 2000


Discuss the following questions with a partner.

1 What does the graph show about the death penalty in the United States?

2 What is your reaction to the information in the graph?


Lecturers often present numerical information when they refer to research studies and other examples that support their ideas. It is important to listen to the context of the numerical information so that you understand what the number represents. Here are some examples of what numbers can represent:

• a year (examples: 1983, 1832)

• a percentage (examples: twenty percent, forty-four percent)

• a fraction (examples: one-eighth, three-quarters)

1 Read the following descriptions. Each of them refers to numerical information that you will hear in the lecture.

1 The date the U. S. Supreme Court ruled that capital punishment was unconstitutional (Capital punishment is another term for the death penalty.)

2 The date when capital punishment was reinstated 3 The number of executions that have been carried out since capital

punishment was reinstated

4 The percentage of people in the United Slates who say they favor the death penalty in cases of murder

____ 5 The people in the United Stales who say they favor the death

penalty in cases of murder, expressed as a fraction

____________ 6 The number of murders per 100,000 people per year in the United


7 The number of murders per 100,000 people per year in Japan 8 The number of murders per 100,000 people per year in France


Now listen to excerpts from the lecture. Write the correct numbers in the blanks in step 1. Then compare your answers with a partner.

LECTURE, PART ONE: Arguments Against the Death Penalty


The following items contain important vocabulary’ from Part One of the lecture.

Work with a partner. Using the context and your knowledge of related words, choose the best synonym for the words in bold by circling the correct letters. Check your answers in a dictionary, if necessary.

1 The U. S. Supreme Court ruled that capital punishment was unconstitutional,

a illegal b immoral c impossible

2 But later, the Court reinstated it.

a continued to discuss it b put it back in place c repeated its argument

3 Executions are usually carried out by lethal injection or electrocution,

a cruel b deadly c painless

4 States with the most executions are also the states with the highest homicide rates,

a assault b fraud c murder

5 I have another major objection to capital punishment.

a interest in b criticism of c opinion about

6 They were released because they were improperly convicted.

a immediately b angrily c incorrectly

7 There were 26 people on death row, and 13 of them were I’eleased.

a waiting to go to court b waiting to be freed c waiting for execution

8 That should not be in the domain of the state.

a interest b world c power

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Kenny 6 How does Kenny react to the dirt in the city? a He really hates it. b He doesn’t mind it. c He wants to move back to the country. 7 What two places does Kenny like most? a the suburbs and the country b the country and the city c the city and the suburbs 8 When does Kenny dislike the city? a on rainy days b on sunny days c on snowy days 9 What kind of city would Kenny like best? a a city by the sea b a city close to a rural area c a city with beautiful buildings LISTENING FOR DETAILS

1 Read the following questions before you listen to the interview. Make sure you understand the vocabulary. If necessary, use a dictionary to check words that you do not understand.

1 Where did Kenny grow up? a in a small tow’n

b in Europe c in a city

2 What feeling does being in the country give Kenny?

a isolation b freedom c boredom

3 What made Kenny move back to New York from a small town?

a his kids b his job c his wife

4 What bothers Kennv most about the urban lifestyle?

a the noise b the people c the traffic

5 Which w’ord best describes Kenny’s feelings about his mother getting

a parking ticket? a anger b fear c stress

Now listen to the interview with Kenny. As you listen, circle the correct answer to the questions above. Then compare your answers with a partner.




1 Work with a partner. Read the list of activities below. Then, based on what you inferred from the interviews, decide whether you think that Barbara and Kenny would enjoy them. You may decide that only Barbara would like the activity, only Kenny would like it, or that they both would like it. Check (✓) the appropriate boxes.



1 Having a picnic by a lake

2 Going to the theater

3 Going to a concert in a small, neighborhood park

4 Going camping or hiking in the mountains

5 Going out to a restaurant with friends

Activity Would Probably Like It

2 Share your answers with the class. Be prepared to support your opinions.


Look at this cartoon.

Discuss the following

questions as a class.

1 What do you think the speaker means by "a larger community”?

2 Do you think the cartoonist believes that people who live in cities feel like part of a larger community?

Why or why not?

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