Category Life in society

1. Central Business District 6. Heavy Manufacturing 2. Wholesale Light Manufacturing 7. Outlying Business District 3. Low-Class Residential 8. Residential Suburb 4. Medium-Class Residential 9. Industrial Suburb 5. High-Class Residential 10. Commuter’s Zone Source: Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 1945 . NOTE TAKING: USING HANDOUTS TO HELP YOU TAKE NOTES

A lecturer’s handouts will help you understand the lecture and give you material that you can study later. However, lecturers rarely give you exactly the same information in the lecture as they do in handouts. Therefore, you must still listen carefully to understand what the speaker says.

Here are some ways that you can take notes on handouts as you listen to a lecture:

• highlight or circle parts of the handout that the lecturer discusses

• mark information that you do not understand and want to ask questions about

• write comments

Remember to take notes in your usual way in addition to marking the handouts. Be sure to organize all vour notes in a clear fonnat (e. g., columns, an outline, or a map) after the lecture.

► PLAY

Listen to two excefpts front the lecture, one from Part One and one from Part Two. Circle the parts of the handouts that the lecturer refers to. Take notes on your own paper about what he savs.

2 і Compare your notes with a partner.

LECTURE, PART ONE: Reasons People Move to Cities

GUESSING VOCABULARY FROM CONTEXT

1 The following items contain some important vocabulary from Part One of the

lecture. Work with a partner. Using the context and your knowledge of related words, take turns trying to guess the meanings of the words in bold.

1 we are going to discuss the mass urbanization of the world’s population.

2 . . . which is an unprecedented trend worldwide.

3 The town has “social opportunity" but “isolation.”

4 Until the twentieth century, the major source of employment was farming.

5 Jobs are being created in manufacturing.

6 Jobs are being created in financing.

7 There are transportation networks.

2

Work with your partner. Match the vocabulary terms with their definitions by writing the letter of each definition below in the blank next to the sentence or phrase containing the correct term in step 1. Check your answers in a dictionary’ if necessary;

a raising animals or growing fruits and vegetables to sell b making products in factories c movement to the cities d something that has never happened before

e systems of r oads, buses, and trains that cross and connect with each other f separation from other people; loneliness g management of money

О NOTE TAKING: COMBINING THE SKILLS

In this book, you have learned many skills that can help you to take clear notes on lectures.

As you listen to a lecture, you have learned how to:

• identify’ main ideas and supporting details

• identify numerical information

• identify organizational phrases and signal words

• pay attention to the lecturer’s stress and intonation

As you take notes, you have learned how to:

• use symbols and abbreviations

• use telegraphic language

• record numerical information accurately

• use handouts

• organize your notes in an appropriate format, e. g., columns, map, outline

• write questions and comments about what yoir have heard

After you listen to a lecture, you have learned how to:

• clarify anything you have not understood

• revise and organize your notes clearly, if necessary

As you continue to practice, you will find that you can easily combine all these note-taking skills whenever you take notes.

► PLAY

Listen to Part One of the lecture and take notes. Practice combining the skills that vou have learned.

2

3

Revise your notes and organize them more clearly if necessary. How satisfied are you with your note-taking progress? Are there any areas that you need to review?

Compare your notes with a partner and share your questions and comments.

LECTURE, PART TWO: Changes in the City

GUESSING VOCABULARY FROM CONTEXT

1 The following items contain some important vocabulary from Part One of the

lecture. Work with a partner. Using the context and your knowledge of related words, take turns trying to guess the meanings of the words in bold.

____ 1 Tokyo, Mexico, Bombay, and Sao Paulo are just a few’ examples of today’s

megacities.

2 They show the urban sprawl that is occurring in contemporary cities.

3 Our cities are breaking up into smaller communities, often by ethnic group or income level.

_ 4 Many cities do have a kind of identity or personality, but a city is not homogeneous.

5 Many cities have slum areas or ghettos where people live in destitute conditions.

__ 6 The beautiful architecture and vibrant nightlife are one face of the city.

2

Work with your partner. Match the vocabulary terms W’ith their definitions by – writing the letter of each definition below in the blank next to the correct term in step 1. Check your answers in a dictionary if necessary’.

a exciting

b uncontrolled growth of cities c all the same d very poor and hopeless e the amount of money that people make f huge cities

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AMERICAN VOICES: Evelina, Arpad, Gail, and Tom

In this section you will hear four people share their opinions about crime. First, you will hear Evelina and Arpad, the parents of a young boy, discuss their fears about crime in society. Then Gail, a professional dancer, and Tom, a graduate student, will talk about being crime victims.

BEFORE THE INTERVIEWS

EXAMINING GRAPHIC MATERIAL

1
Look at the two pie charts below that classify arrests in the United Slates today. The chart on the left classifies arrests by age group. The chart on the right classifies arrests by gender. Work with a partner. Fill in the chart legends with your guesses about the age and gender of people arrested.

2

Check your responses using the answer key at the bottom of page 102. Were your guesses correct? Does any of the information surprise you?

INTERVIEW WITH EVELINA AND ARPAD: Crime in society today

Here aie some words and phrases from the interview with Evelina and Arpad printed in bold and given in the context in which you will hear them. They are followed by definitions.

I’ve never actually been struck by crime: personally affected

I see big groups of kids roaming the streets: walking around with no clear purpose if it’s a rowdy teenage group: noisy, wild Guns might not be visible: able to be seen

I’ve never seen anyone with a gun and much less seen a shooting: even less, certainly haven’t

It’s very random: that’s what worries me: without any definite pattern A bullet struck him in the leg: small metal object fired from a gun

Kids who gel into gangs don’t have that much contact with other people: groups of young people who are involved in antisocial or illegal activities

It’s a recipe for disaster: situation that will lead to serious trouble

Arpad, Daniel, and Evelina

The government has such a slack attitude toward guns: lazy, not interested

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Changing Societies

T

his unit concerns ways in which contemporary life is different from life in the past. Chapter 9 examines the impact of technology. You will hear two people with different views talk about how computers and the internet have changed our world. The lecture is about how technology has impacted the job market. Chapter 10 presents information about the increasing tendency of people to move to cities. You will listen to interviews about the advantages and disadvantages of living in cities, near cities, and in the country’. Then you will hear a lecture about how cities have changed and will continue to change.

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LECTURE, PART TWO: Getting a Story into Print

GUESSING VOCABULARY FROM CONTEXT

1 The following items contain important vocabulary from Part One of the lecture. Work with a partner. Using the context and your knowledge of related words, lake turns trying to guess the meanings of the words in bold.

1 whether or not the story is accurate

2 The public would have been misinformed.

3 Bill Jones could decide to sue the paper for misrepresenting his character.

4 That’s called libel, and it’s something judges take very seriously.

5 Every controversial fact should be supported by two different sources.

6 There must be no uncorroborated facts.

Work with vour partner. Match the vocabulary terms with their definitions by writing the letter of each definition below’ in the blank next to the sentence containing the correct term in step 1. Check your answers in a dictionary if necessary.

a given incorrect d the crime of telling untrue stories about a person

information e bring a legal case against

b unchecked f people or documents from which you get information

c correct, true

Now listen to Part Two of the lecture and take notes on your own paper. Pay attention to the signal words to help you follow the lecture.

2

Complete your organized notes for the lecture by adding information about Part Two to the column or outline format you chose for Part One. Then compare your notes with a partner.

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NOTE TAKING: COMBINING THE SKILLS

1 I 2! 3

► PLAY

Listen to Part Two of the lecture and take notes on your own paper.

Revise and reorganize your notes if necessary.

Exchange your notes with a partner. Use the checklist below to evaluate your partner’s notes. Check (✓) the skills that your partner used.

Note-taking Skills

і_ ! Identifying main ideas and supporting details

HU Recording numerical information HU Using symbols and abbreviations HU Using telegraphic language

HU Organizing notes clearly in columns, a map, or an outline HU Using the lecturers handouts HU Identifying anything that was not clear HU Writing questions and comments

4

5

S Work with your partner and review each other’s note-taking skills.

Discuss your questions and comments with your partner. Clarify anything you still do not understand by asking other classmates.

AFTER THE LECTURE

SUMMARIZING WHAT YOU HAVE HEARD

1 Look at the first part of a summary of the lecture. Use your notes to finish writing the summary.

Ow U-hanotg. duties FrofeSSor 6rtj2и бяіігои

Msntj More people – are Moving. to cities tcdaij than in the past. There are various reasons for this, Some of which are Shown in the handout frotv Йгепеглег Howard’s booh. The Main reason that мantj people prefer to live in a ci-fy is because there are More jots and More opportunities to earn мопсу in urban environMerrfy Л Second reason is that cities offer comforf and convenience. . . .

2 і Compare your summary with a partner. Remember that your summaries will not be exactly the same.

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