Discuss these questions with your classmates:
• The first illustration on the previous page shows a "sweatshop." Why do you think the word sweat is part of the name? Where do we find sweatshops? How do they come about?
• What are the people in the second photo upset about?
• What are the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank? What do they do?
• How is the World Trade Organization (WTO) different from these two banks?
Read through the sentences, trying to imagine which words would fit in the blanks. Then listen to a dictation of the full sentences, and write the missing words in the blanks.
1. The King of Bhutan said that he wasn’t sure his country had one of those but was interested in knowing what a
2. Globalization is the_________________________ and
________________________ of economic interaction among the
people, companies, and governments of different nations.
3. But it is at the same time a subject that________________________
the anger and mistrust of many people in the world: environmentalists, unionists, anarchists, and some governments—
all_________________________ rather than supporters of
4. Some skeptics feel that globalization allows rich countries to take
________________________ of poor countries, which these skeptics feel are only hurt by trying to be more___
5. And globalization is definitely about capitalism: its goal is to
________________________ and capital around the world.
6. If globalization is included in a book that focuses on the United States, it is because the world sees the United States (and, to a lesser degree, Western Europe and Japan) as the
the process of globalization.
7. Often, poor countries are pressured to follow global trade rules as a condition for a loan or for aid. For example, a poor country
might be advised to adjust the value of its_____________________
or it might be advised to eliminate__________________________ ,
or taxes, on goods imported from other countries.
8. _______________________ on new inventions and copyright
laws most often protect technology from the West—and keep the technology from being used more freely by poor countries. Poorer
countries may also be told to_________________________ their
industries and banks.
9. To get an idea how these rules can in some cases
________________________ development instead of encouraging
it, let’s take a look at some countries that are not big Western
powers but have________________________ into the world
economy—by not following the rules.
10. It is common for critics to claim that globalization has only
________________________ rich Western countries, but this
11. Harvard economist Dani Rodrik, in "Trading in Illusions," writes that all four countries have taken advantage of opportunities to
________________________ in world trade, that is, to
________________________ integration in the world economy.
12. India was, and still is, one of the most________________________
economies in the world but has made great progress economically, and South Korea and Taiwan had patent and copyright
________________________ and restrictions on foreign
________________________ but still prospered.
13. The poor countries_________________________
___________________ against agricultural____________________
by rich countries, which make the poor countries7 products less competitive in the world market.
14. The twenty-three countries did not manage to_________________
the subsidies at that meeting because the talks broke down, but they did
Using the photographs and the vocabulary exercise as a starting point,
write three questions that you think will be answered in the lecture.
Examples: • Do most countries benefit or suffer from globalization?
• Have any poor countries prospered because of globalization?
Follow-up: After you have written your questions, share them with your teacher and your classmates.
In Chapter 8, you worked on structuring your notes to make them easier to read. Practice organizing ideas again on a new topic. While listening, write the main idea on the first line under Notes. You will hear five examples; notice there are five equally indented lines for those, marked with diamonds (♦). The lines that are even further indented to the right are for details of two of the examples. Listen to this passage two times, and take notes using key words.
Carefully read these sentences, which signal a transition to a new topic. Then decide in which order you will probably hear them in today’s lecture. Number them first (1) to fifth (5).
___ a. To get on to my second point today, let’s look more closely
at some non-Western countries that have achieved longterm economic growth in the past decades.
___ b. To finish up by talking about our third point today, we have
to take up two problems that critics of globalization bring up all the time.
___ c. Let me begin this lecture by telling you a story to put things
__ d. To conclude, in my estimation, globalization is probably
going to continue because capitalism has become the dominant world economic system.
___ e. We can’t really go into cultural imperialism today, but we
can look at three different aspects of globalization to understand this complicated process a little better.
Follow-up: Discuss your answers as a class.
Listen for general ideas. The lecturer has a very long introduction, giving us definitions and background that we’ll need to follow the lecture. Then he explains how he will organize the lecture. The first two subtopics are quite long, whereas the third is relatively short. The conclusion is rather long because the lecturer attempts to bring all three points together. As you listen, decide what the three main subtopics are, and write them down under ST1, ST2, and ST3. Ideas in the introduction and conclusion are also important in this lecture, so try to take down important background information including the definitions.
Follow-up: Now check your major subtopics with your teacher.
While listening again, write down necessary relevant details below the main subtopic to which they belong. Use key words to save time, and structure the information to organize your notes.
Follow-up: Check your notes. If you missed important information or have doubts about your notes, (1) verify them by asking a classmate questions to fill the gaps in your notes or (2) listen to the lecture a third time. When verifying your notes with a classmate, do not show each other your notes; ask specific questions to get the information you need.
Examples: • Did you get down all five examples under the first
• What did the lecturer say about South Korea and Taiwan?
• Did the lecturer mention any countries in connection to sweatshops?
This is also a good time to check to see if the lecturer answered your Predictions questions about the lecture.
Listen to the following questions, and write short answers where possible. Use your notes. You will hear each question one time only.
Follow-up: Check your answers with your teacher. If your score is less than 70 percent, you may need to listen to the lecture again or rewrite your notes so that you can understand and retrieve the information in them.
In groups of five, use your notes to reproduce sections of the lecture. Student A will present the introduction, Student B, subtopic 1; student C, subtopic 2; student D, subtopic 3; and student E, the conclusion. If you don’t understand or you disagree with what you hear, wait until your classmate finishes. Then bring your notes into agreement by seeking clarification, as follows:
• I didn’t understand your definition of globalization. Could you repeat it?
• Is the lecturer for or against child labor? It’s not clear to me.
Look into your country’s integration into the world economy by researching one or more of these topics:
• imports and exports, including whether subsidies and tariffs exist
• their country’s economic health today compared to ten or twenty years ago and the reasons for the change if there is one
• recent participation by their country in WTO talks
• a particular World Bank or IMF project: its success and, if possible, the global trade rules imposed to complete the project
Use the library, the Internet, or an interview with an expert for information to prepare a five-minute talk to present to the class. Put the research into your own words and speak from notes (rather than read a text) to be easier to understand.
Discuss one or two of the following questions with a partner. Then share your views with another pair or the whole class.
1. Do you think the world in general is worse off or better off because of globalization? Explain.
2. Can poorer countries oppose the will of stronger ones when it comes to world trade? If so, how?
3. Do you feel that the only ones benefiting from globalization are transnational corporations (multinationals)? Explain.
www. guardian, со. uk/globalisation/storv
A number of different views on globalization from a British newspaper site (note the British spelling “globalisation ” in the address).
On the Internet, search under "Dani Rodik" for a Harvard professor’s further views on globalization.
Life and Debt, Stephanie Black, director; 86 minutes, not rated.
A documentary which examines how the Jamaican economy has changed under the influence of the IMF, World Bank, and other organizations. Based on the book A Small Place by Jamaica Kincaid.
Now that you have completed the chapters in this unit, your teacher may want you to take a quiz. Your teacher will tell you whether or not you can use your notes to answer the questions on the quiz. If you can use your notes, review them before taking the quiz so that you can anticipate the questions and know where to find the answers. If you cannot use your notes, study them carefully before you take the quiz, concentrating on organizing the information into main ideas and details that support these main ideas.
Work in small groups to help each other anticipate the questions your teacher will ask. Before breaking up into groups, review your notes and highlight important, noteworthy points. After reviewing your notes, break up into groups. Discuss and write specific short – answer questions and more general essay questions. (For guidelines in writing questions, see the Unit Quiz Directions at the end of Unit 1.)
Write your group’s questions on the following pages.
UNIT QUIZ DIRECTIONS