Common Law and the Jury System

I. PRELISTENING________________________

B. Vocabulary and Key Concepts

1. guilty/unjustly

2. innocent until proven guilty

3. code of laws

4. common law/precedents

5. testimony/verdict

6. private parties

7. compensatory/punitive damages

8. "beyond a reasonable doubt"

9. convicted

10. irrelevant/evidence/admissible

11. hung

12. pleads guilty/lesser crime

D. Notetaking Preparation

1. Prelecture Reading

a. TOC o "1-5" h z no

b. Mary Beth Whitehead-Gould

c. 2

d. no

e. Because of the nature of the law, courts will be obligated to base future decisions on decisions made in this case.

2. Courtroom Language

a. court reporter

b. judge

c. witness

d. jury

e. bailiff

f. defendant

g. plaintiff/prosecutor

h. courtroom clerk

III. POSTUSTENIMG______________________

A. Accuracy Check

1. innocent until proven guilty

2. British common law

3. 6-12

4. a jury

5. civil

6. criminal

7. to see that the trial is conducted according to law

8. to decide whether they believe the testimony they hear and whether the evidence presented to them is valid

9. about 80%

10. because it’s difficult to prove people are guilty and because trials are so expensive to conduct

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A. Accuracy Check . Distance Education


B. Vocabulary and Key Concepts

1. setting foot

2. instruction/separated

3. correspondence

4. accredited/community

5. upgrade/continuous

6. budget crunches

7. access/technology

8. modes/vary

9. via mail/download

10. residency

11. dropout/traditional

12. unscrupulous/alluring

13. credentials

D. Notetaking Preparation

1. Deciphering Notes

a. No, many distance education programs have residency require­ments.

b. No, admission requirements are the same as for on-campus pro­grams.

c. Three examples of computer requirements that online study might require are the latest version of Windows, a microphone, and a modem. (Answers may vary.)

d. Students are more likely to complete traditional programs than distance education programs. (Dropout rate is higher for distance education.)

2. Rhetorical Cues

a. 2

d. 6

b. 5

e. 3

c. 1

f. 4

II, LISTENING___________________________________________________

A First Listening

Major Subtopics

ST1 reasons why distance education is growing so rapidly

ST2 how distance education works, that is, what the modes of delivery are

ST3 some things people considering distance education need to be aware of


A. Accuracy Check

1. by time and by distance

2. by correspondence (by mail)

3. 1892

4. 90%

5. at the same time

6. (Answers may vary.)

7. No (There are time limits.)

8. No (They are about the same.)

9. cable modem, DSL

10. No (The dropout rate is higher for distance education courses and programs.)


1. ownership/property

2. free enterprise

3. interfere/laissez-faire

4. contracts/national defense

5. control/comply with

6. income/public assistance/welfare

7. competitive/antitrust/monopoly

8. stability

9. taxation/inflation

10. unemployment/balance

11. expenditures/interest

12. conservative/favor

13. static/composition

a. No. They were suspicious of strong central government.

b. The Confederation was unable to solve many problems facing the new nation and needed a stronger central government.

c. None. In a laissez-faire economy, the government does not inter­fere with the economy.

d. The government imposed an income tax for the first time. After the Civil War, the government had money for internal improve­ments to the country.

D. Notetaking Preparation

1. Prelecture Reading

B. Vocabulary and Key Concepts

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Crime and Violence in the United States

I. PRELISTENING__________________________________________________

B. Vocabulary and Key Concepts

1. violent/aggravated

2. enforcement/stringent

3. white-collar/embezzlement

4. aggressive/predisposed to

5. to blame/shortcomings

6. root/proliferation

7. deprived of/strike out

8. underclass/disproportionately

9. curbs/socializing

10. values/compassion

11. conscience/bring up

12. punishment/deterrent

13. financiers/lacking

14. takes over/leads to

15. benefits/take for granted

D. Notetaking Preparation

1. Structuring

a. Crime statistics match public’s perception of less crime

b. Three secondary support ideas:

1. 1994-2001: violent crime decreased 52%

2. possible reasons for decrease

3. statistics on white-collar crime (embezzlement, bribery, etc.) not as clear

c. Two details for each point.

1. 1994: 51 victims per 1,000/in 2001, 24 victims per 1,000

2. stricter law enforcement in cities/stringent penalties on repeat offenders

3. statistics hard to get and/It doesn’t scare people

2. Rhetorical Cues

a. 2

d. 6

b. 5

e. 3

c. 1

f. 4

II. LISTENING__________________________________________

A. First Listening

Major Subtopics

ST1 liberal theory of crime

ST2 conservative theory of crime

ST3 some solutions to the crime problem in the U. S.


A. Accuracy Check

1. 52%

2. embezzlement, bribery, political corruption, and/or dangerous cor­porate policies

3. racism, poverty, and injustice

4. No

5. the liberal theory

6. by giving them values, a conscience

7. socialization by the family and fear of punishment

8. They’ve enjoyed the benefits of society.

9. good education, health care, and employment

10. conservative

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I. PRELISTENING______________________

B. Vocabulary and Key Concepts

1. skeptically/homogeneous

2. deny/impact

3. melting/metaphor

4. alloy/myth

5. excluded/discrimination

6. viewed/prejudice

7. mosaic/autonomous

8. Intermarriage/adoption

9. implied/exception

10. inherit/absorb

11. assimilation/generation

12. fragmentation/proponents

13. dominant/reflects

14. Opponents/Latinos

D. Notetaking Preparation

2. Rhetorical Cues

a. however,- on the other hand

b. In fact

c. For instance

d. however; nevertheless

e. Rather; Instead

f. On the other hand; However; Nevertheless

g. furthermore; also

II – LISTENING___________________________________ ‘

A. First Listening

Major Subtopics

ST1 the monoculturalist view ST2 the multiculturalist view ST3 the pluralistic view

A. Accuracy Check

1. No

2. harder

3. the monoculturalist view

4. African, Asian, and Native Americans as well as each newly ar­rived group

5. the patchwork quilt

6. No

7. 17%

8. We inherit, absorb, and choose it.

9. fragmentation or destruction of U. S. culture 10. open to change

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Passages: Birth Marriage and Death

I. PRELISTENING_________________________

B. Vocabulary and Key Concepts

1. bewildering/ingrained

2. shower/expectant

3. mother-to-be/pretext

4. expressions of envy/reassured

5. unheard of

6. banished/delivery

7. baptism

8. observed/fiancees

9. empowered/civil

10. bride/groom/superstitious

11. banned/hazardous

12. cremated

13. memorial/wake

14. eulogy/deceased

15. condolences/bereaved


A. Accuracy Check

1. shortly before the baby is due

2. (1) baby showers not always a surprise, and (2) men sometimes attend

3. baptism

4. the bride’s family

5. a religious ceremony

6. something old, something new, something borrowed, and some­thing blue

7. the groom

8. in case of cremation

9. a sympathy card and flowers

10. white

Unit Three

American Trademarks

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